Feeling, then, is thus effected : The Tip of the Finger, for inftance, being applied to an Object to be examined ; J3y that Intention of the Mind, the Papilla: are emitted or elevated ; and being lightly rubb'd over the Surface of the Object, a Motion is imprels'd on them. 5 which being thence propagated by the Nerves communicating with them, to the common Senfory, excites the Perception of Heat, Cold, Hardncls, or the like. See Sensation.
Hence we fee,why Feeliiig becomes painful, when the Cu- ticle is wore off, burnt, macerated, Sfc. And why, when the Cuticle becomes thick, hard, callous, or cicatrized, 55?c. the Senfe of Feeling is loft ; whence the Numbncfs imprefs'd by the Torpedo ; why that exquifite Painfulnefs under, and at the Roots of the Nails, ££c. See Cuticle, Burning, Callus, Torpedo, and Nail.
Feeling is, on many Accounts, the mod univerfal of our Senfes : There is no Animal without it.
'Pliny obferves, that feveral Animals, as Oyfters, and Earth-worms, which have no other Senfe, yet have this of Feeling. Nat. Hift. lib. 10. c. 71. The other Senfes are confin'd to narrow Bounds; Feeling only is coextended with the Body, as being neceflary to the Well-being of e- very Part. Hence Cicero, Feeling is equally diffufed through- out the whole Frame, that we might be feniible of all Im- pulfes in every Part, and feel all the Degrees of Heat, Cold, &c. De Nat. Dcor. L. II. c. 5 tf.
Naturalifts obferve, that Spiders, Flies, and Ants have the Senfe of Feeling in a much greater Perfection than Men; though we have Inftances of Perfons, who could diftinguifh Colours by their Feeling ; and of others, who could perceive what People faid, by the fame Senfe. See Colour, and Deafness.
FEINT, in Mufick, a Semi-tone; the fame with what we alfo call TJiefis. See Diesis.
Feint, in Rhetorick, A Figure whereby the Speaker touches on fome thing, in making a Shew of paffing it over in Silence. The Zauns call it i Prdetermi£io. See Preter- mission.
Feint, in Fencing, a falfe Attack, or a Shew of making a Stroke, or Pufh in one Part, with Defign to bring the Enemy to guard that Part, and leave fome other Part un- guarded, where the Sttoke is really intended. See Guard. Feints are either fingle, or double ; high, or low ; with- out, or within, t£c. In Prime, in Tierce, in Quart, in Demi, and in the whole Circle ; in one, two, or three Meafures.
Thc/imple Feint is a mere Motion of the Wrift, with- out ftirring the Foot, £5?G.
FELAPTON, in Logick, one of the Moods of Syllo- gifms. See Mood.
In a Syllogifm, in Felapton, the firft Propofltion is an univerfal Negative ; the fecond, an univerfal Affirmative; and the third, a particular Negative. See Syllogism. FELLING of Timber, fee Timber. FELLOWS, in Fortification, are fix pieces of Wood, each of which form an Arch of a Circle ; and thefe joyn'd all together by Duledges, make an entire Circle ; which with twelve Spokes, make the Wheel of a Gun-Carriage. See Carriage.
Their Thicknefs is ufually the Diameter of the Ball of the Gun they ferve for, and their Breadth fomething more. FELLOWSHIP, Company, or <Partnerfhif, in Arith- metick, is a Rule of great TJfe in ballancing Accounts a- mongft Merchants, and Owners of Ships; where a Num- ber of Perfons putting together a general Stock ; it is re- quir'd to give every one his proportional Share of the Lofs, or Gain.
The Golden Rule feveral times repeated, is the Bafis of Fellow/hip, and fully anfwets all Queftions of that Kind: For, as the whole Stock is to the Total thereby gain'd, or loft ; fo each Man's particular Share, is to his proper Share of Lofs, or Gain. Wherefore, the feveral Sums of Money of every Partner are to be gather'd into one Sum, for the firft Term; the common Gain, or Lofs for the fecond; and evnyMan's particular Share for the third : and the Golden Rule to be wrought fo many times, as there are Partners.
There are two Cafes of this Rule ; the tmeWitbwt, the other With 'time.
Fellowship without Time, is where the Quantity of Stock, contributed by each Perfon, is alone confider'd ; without any particular regard to the Length of Time, that any of their Monies were employ'd. An Example will make this Procefs eafy.
A, B, and C. freight a. Ship with ira Tun of Wine; A. laying out 1341 I. S. n 78 /. and C. <>;o /. towards the fame: The whole Cargo is fold at 32 /. pr Tun. Query, what mail each Perfon receive?
Find the whole Produce of the Wine, by multiplying 112 by 52, which yields 1J784: Then, adding togetherthe feveral Stocks, 1542, njS, and C30, which make 3150 , the Work will Hand thus :
3150 : 07784.
2 — Anfw.-
r 1342— Ai < 1178 - I (S30 —
-2S90 2537 135S
Fellowship ivith Time, is, where the Time, wherein the Money, &c. was employ'd, enters iuto the Account. An Example will make it clear.
A. S. C. commence a Partnerfhip the firft of January, for a whole Year. A. the fame Day disburfed 100 /. whereof he receiv'd back again on the firft of April, 20 /. B- pays on the firft of March 60 I. and more the firft of Augufl, 100 /. C. pays the firft of July 140 /• and the firft of Oc- tober withdraws 40 /. At the Years End their clear Gain is 142 /. Query, what is each Perfon's Due ?
As ico I. multiplied by 3 Months, the Time it was in, makes 300/. and the remaining 80, by 9 Months=720, In all 1020 /. of A's Contribution. For B. 6"o into 10, gives (Too ; and ico into 5, 500, in all 1 100 /.for B. For C, 140 into 3, gives 420 ; and ico into 3, is 300; in all 72-0 /. foro. Now, 1020-1-1100-4-720=2840 for the common Antece- dent; and the Gain 142, is for the general Confequent : Then the Rule willftand thus:
<- 1020 — Anfw. ■ — '51
1840 : 14s ) iioo — — ■ 55
C 7-20 ' — — %6
Proof 2840 142
FEiLO-de-fee, is he, that commits Felony, by willingly killing himfelf.
The Saxons call'd him Self-bane. See Suicide.
He is to be interr'd without chriftian Burial, with a Stake driven through his Corps; and to forfeit his Goods.
FELONY, was antiently ufed for a violent and injurious Action of a Vaffal, or Tenant againft his Lord.
In which Senfe, Felony was equivalent to petty Treafon; or it was a Crime next below High Treafon. The Crime of Felony inported Confifcation of the Fee, to the Profit of the Lord.
The fame Term Felony, is applied to an Injury of the Lord to his Vaffal; which imports a Forfeiture of the Ho- mage and Service thereof,and make it revert to thcSoveraign.
Fidelity, and Felony are reciprocal between the Lord and the Vaffal. See Lord.
Menage derives the Word from Felmiia, form'd of felo, or feller, which occurs in the Capitularies of Charles the Bald, and is fuppos'd to come from the German Fehlen, or Saxon Felen, to fail, or be delinquent. Others derive it from the barbarous Latin Vilania.
My Lord Coke, Nicod, &c. derive it a felle, Gall, as being fuppos'd to be done malicioufiy. Laftly, others de- rive it from the Greek tpixnv, to deceive.
Felony, in Common Law, is an Offence next below that of Petty-Treafon.
Felony includes feveral Species of Crimes, whofe Punifh- ment is the fame, viz. Death : Such as Murther, Theft, Suicide, Sodomy, Rape, wilful Sliming of Houfes, receiving of ftolen Goods, and divers others found in the Statutes, which are daily making Crimes Felony, that were not fo before.
Felony is eafily diftinguifh'd from Treafon. See Treason.
From leffer Crimes, it is diftinguifh'd by this, that its Punifhment is Death; tho' not univerfally : For Petty Lar- ceny, i. e. ftealing of a thing, under the Value ofud. is Felony, according to Brook; tho' the Crime be not capital, but only a Lofs of Goods.
The Reafon Brook gives for its being Felony, is that the Indictment runs, Felomce cepit.
Till the Reign of Henry I. Felonies were puni fh'd by pe- cuniary Fines : That Prince firft order'd Felons to be hang'd, about the Year 1108.
Felony is of two Kinds : The one lighter, which for the firft time is entitled to the Benefit of Clergy; as Manflaugh- ter. See Manslaughter. The other is not.
Felony is alfo punifh'd by Lofs of all Lands, not intail'd; and all Goods and Chattels, both real and perfonal : Tho' the Statutes make a Difference in fome Cafes, concerning Lands; as appears by Stat. 37 FIen.%.
Felony ordinarily works Corruption of Blood, unlefs the Statute, ordaining the Offence to be Felony, provide other- wife; as thcStat. 39 Bliz. c. 17. See Furca.
FELT, a kind of Stuff, either of Wool alone, or of Wool and Hair; neither fpun, crofs'd, nor wove, but deriving all its Confidence from its being wrought, and full'd with Lees and Size, and afterwards fafhioned on a Block or Mould, by help of Fire and Water.
Caftor's, Camels, and Coneys Hair ; Lambs and Sheeps Wool, cifc. are themoft ufual Ingredients of Felts : And Hats of all kinds, are the Works, tliey are chiefly employed in.