Page:Cyclopaedia, Chambers - Volume 2.djvu/1006
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from the Ground it wafties. gradually either /ink to the hot fl -..„..
torn, or are driven to the Shore : And hence the anrien fc,l ^ f ^f^t 'S If ?.^~?^> Water H^ U-
t i ve all Bodies, even the heavieft and molt compact; as Me- la s j inafmuch as thole are capable of being reduced into a. la me form : in which State they may be fo intimately dif- lolved by Water, as to be fuftained therein.
Hater diflolves all japonacccns Bodies, i.e. all alkalious" Salts and Oils blended together : Tho Oil it fell" be not dil- foluble in Water, the Admixture of Salt herewith, render' ing it laline, bririgHrimder the Power of Water.
Now, all the Humours in the human Bodv are aoparcnt- Jy laline tho none 01 them are Salt it felf ;'and tile fame may belaid of the Juices of all Vegetables, excepting the Oils ; and accordingly, thev all diffolve in Water.
Water diflolves Glr.fi it felf. This being melted with
Salt of Iartar, becomes foluble in Water. See Glass. It diflolves all Gums
Poets and Painters reprefent the Deities of Springs and Ri- vers, as combing and carding their Waters.
With regard to the Qualities of Water, it is further dif- tinguifh'd into Saliva, Sih-Watcr ; 'Dulcis, ^rt!\\- Water, ike.
Salt Water, or <S<?a- Water. See Salt, and .51>,7-Water.
Frcjb-^l ht%s..— It is generally granted that thofe Waters, ceteris paribus, are the bed, as well for wholefomnefs, as other various (economical Ufcs, ££?c. that are freeft from Saltnefs ; which is an adventitious, and in moll Cafes a hurtful Quality in Waters. — Mr. Style therefore contrived a very extraordinary Method of examining the Freflinefs and Saltnefs of Waters, by a Precipitant, which could difcover one Part of Salt in iooo, nay l or 3000 Parts of Water. See Fresh Water.
■ i» cir;</rtj and trummous Bodies- it h"inp The thaw d Ice of Sea-»iMr is often ufed in Amfterdam Characteriflick of a Gum, that it £-■ for brewing ; and Sartboline, in his Book de Nivis Ufii, contradiftincrion from a Refin confirms the Relation : * Tis certain, fays he, that if the ' Ice of the Sea-Water be thawed, it lofes its Saltnefs; as ' has been lately tried by a Profeffor in our Univerliry.
Ufes of Water.
molvcs in Water ; See Gum, g?c. Yet, Water mix'd with alcaii Salts, diflolves Oils and oily Bodies. — Thus, tho mere Water pOur'd on greafy Wool, be repelled thereby ; yet a ftrong Lixivium; or alcaii Salt being 1 mix'd with the Water, it readily diflolves and ablbrbs all that was gteafy and oleaginous ; and thus it is that woollen - The LUes of Witter are infinite ; in Food, in Medicine, Cloths arc fcour'd in Agriculture, in Navigation, in divers of the Ara.efc. Again, Water 'does not diflblve Refins ; as we conceive
«7 A i/ j'-r" ° ne ° f th <j m ° ft UI »J«fal Drinks in the a Refin to be no other than an infpiflated or concentrated World ; and if we may credit many of our lateft and bell Oil. See Resin
Phyficians one of the belt too.-For this Ufe, that which Oils and Sulphurs Wftter leaves untouch 'd , and what is ,s pureft, l.ghteftmofl transparent, fimple, colourlefs, void more extraordinary, it repels them = and to repelling, drives of Tafte and Smell and which warms and cools fafteft, and the oily Patticles into Eddies.-Acki, that it teems to repel wherein Herbs and lulfe infufe and boil the fooneft, is belt, all oleaginous, fulphutous, fatty, and adipous Bodies, where:
Oil predominates ; and hence alfo it is, that the fatty
Hippocrates, in his Trcatife de Acre, Aquis t$ Locis, fpeaks much in behalf of light Water.--— Herodotus relates, That among the Ancients, fome Nations drank a Water fo very light, that all Woods readily funk therein. And Mr. Soyle mentions fome Water brought out of Africa into England, which was fpecifically lighter than ours, by four Ounces in a Pint, i. e. by one third. See Waterpoise.
Tis efteem'd a good Quality in Water, to bear Soap, and
Parts in our Bodies efcape being diffolved by Water.— And 'tis, in all probability, by this means, that Fat is collected in the adipofe Cells of all Animals. See Fat.
Nor does it diffblve terrene or earthy Bodies, but rather unites and confolidatcs them ; as We fee in Tyles, [£?c. See Earth.
After diflblving a Body, the Water unites and hardens to- gether jyith it ; and, if the Body be of the filing Kind,
make a Lather therewith. This our Rivet-Waters readily iorms Cryflals, and retains the Salts in that form. Sec Ca
do, but the Pump and SyringWaters ate found too hard for stal. it ; yet may thefe be remedy'd, by barely letting 'em fland Salts, while thus join'd with Water, alTume various Fi-
for four or five Days gures; the Cryflals of Sea-Salr, «.g. are pyramidal 5 thofe
As* Medicine, tis found internal y, a powerful lelri- of Nitre, prifmatical 5 thofe of Sal Gemmr, cubical t$c
fugej excellent agaihft Colds, Coughs, Stone, Scurvy, igc. But, that Water is the Caufe of thefe Salts being in Cryflals,
is evident hence, That upon feparating the Water, the Crv-
See Febrifuge, 15i-
Externally, its Effects are no lefs confiderable. See Bath, and Bathing.
In Agriculture and Gardening, Water is allow'd abfolute- ly neceflary to Vegetation ; whence Varro places it in the Number of the Divinities he invokes in his firliBook de Re Ruftica: Ftiam, fays he, precor Lympha, quoniamfine aqua munis mifera eji agricultura. See Watering.
The Changes Water is liable to, and the different Forms it appears under, are numerous. — Sometimes as lie, then as
Vapour, then as a Cloud, Shower, Snow, Hail, Fog, &c. and without it there would be noYuch~Effea Ynall Nature* See Ice, Vapour, Cloud, Shower, Snow, Hail, Fog, See Putrefaction.
ftals are no more ; their Form is loll, and their Tranfparency ceafes. Sec Crystallization.
i°, Without Water there can no Fermentation be rais'd.— Thus, if you grind a Plant inroaDuft or Farina, it will never ferment ; even tho you add Xeaft or Spirit of Wine thereto: but Water being pour'd on it, the Fermentation readily afi' fes. See Fermentation.
, All 'Putrefactions, both of Animal and Vegetable es, are likewife perform 'd by means of Water "alone •
&c. fee alfo Freezing, Thawing, ££jc.
Many Naturalilts have even maintain'd Water to be the Vegetable Matter, or the only proper Food of Plants ; but Rn Woodward has overturn'd that Opinion, and /hewn, that the Office of Witter in Vegetation, is only to be a Vehicle to a terreitrial Matter, whereof Vegetables are form'd ; and does not it felf make any Addition to 'em. — Ail Water, he
allows, contains more or lefs of this rcrreftrial Matter ; Spring fometime in a proper quantity'of Water ■ the Salts diflolvine and Rain-Water near an equal quantity, and Kiyet-Water will be extracted from the Oil, and imb'ib'd by the Water ■ more than cither of 'em. See Vegetation. and thus is the Body dulcify'd.— So Eutter by a continual
Water is of the laft Ufe in Chymiftry ; being one of the Lotion in fair Water, becomes infipid ■ and aromatick Oils great Inftruments by means whereof its Operations are all agitated a long time in warm Water 'lay afide their faline
4", Water is indifpenfibly requir'dto F.ffervefcence ; which is an interline Motion, ariflng between contrary Salts 1 for no fuch Motion can arife from a Mixture of contrary Salts, un- lefs there be Water to difl'olve and keep 'erh in Solution- s, A farther Ufe is in the making Separations of oily from faline Parts, which is a thing of the laft Setvice: Thus, any oleaginous Subftance, incorporared with Salt, being [hook
pcrlorm'd. See Chvmistry, and Operation.
It acts in various Manners and Capacities, as a Menftru- um, a Ferment, a Putrefacient, a Vehicle, a Medium, £Sfc.
i°, As a Menftruum, it diflolves all Kinds of Salts. See Salt, g?c.
Air alio feems to diflblve Salts ; but 'tis only in virtue of
fpirituous Parts, and become inert and inodorous.
Spirir of Wine, mix'd with Oil, makes one Bodv there- with ; but if you pour Water thereon, it will repel the Oil, and draw all the Spirit to it felf; nay, frequently, what the Spirit had diffolved in other Bodies, Water will feparate from 'em, by attenuating the Spirit, and letting the other the Water it contains. — Nor has any other Body the rower Matters precipitate.
of diflblving Salts, further than as it fhares of this Fluid. See 6", Water is of great fervice in directing and determining Al £; ^ . , , , , . , , the Degree of Fire, or Heat.— This was firft difcover 'd by
The Particles of Salts, we have obierved, infinuate them- M. Amontons, from an Obfervation that Water over the Fire felves into the Interlaces between the Particles of Water ; grows gradually more and more hot, till it comes to boil - but when thole Interftices are once filled, the fame Water bur then ceafes to increafe, and only maintains its prefer? will not any longer difl'olve the fame Salt ; but it will dif- degree of heat, even tho the Fire were ever fo much cn- folve a Salt of another Kind, by reafon of the different Fi- larg'd, or were continu'd ever fo long.— This, therefore af- gure of the Panicles, which enter and occupy the Vacancies fords a Standard or fixed Degree of Heat all over the World - left by the former: And thus it will diflblve a third, or fourth boiling Water, provided it be
— So, when Water has imbib'd its fill of common Salt, it will ftill diflblve Nitre ; and when faturated with Nitre, it will diffolve Sal Ammoniac, and fo on.
Water alfo diflolves all faline Bodies, it being the confti- tuent Character of this Clafs of Bodies, that they are unin-
, provided it be equally pure, being of the Salt, &c— So, when Water_ has imbib d its fill of common fame Heat in Greenland as under the Equator.
By means hereof, they make Satbs of divers Decrees of Hear, accommodated to the various Occafions. SetfBATH Fire, Heat, &c.
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