Page:Cyclopaedia, Chambers - Volume 2.djvu/138
The Word Wlantquin is a Diminutive of Man, and proper- ly fignifies a little Man.
MANES; a Poetical Term, fignifying the Shades or Souls of the Deceafed. The Heathens ufed a world of Ceremonies and Sacrifices to appeafe the Manes of thole who died without Burial.
The Dii Mattes were the Infernal Gods who tormented Men ; and to thefe the Heathens offer'd Sacrifices to af- fuage their Indignation. The Heathen Theology is a lit- obfcure with regard to thefe Gods Manes. Some hold that they were the Souls of the Dead, others that they were the Genii of Men ; which laft Opinion fuits heft with the Etymology of the Word. The Heathens, 'tis pretty evi- dent, applied all thefe Ideas to the Manes ; fo that the Word fometimes fignified the Ghoils of the Depatted, and fometimes the infernal or fubterraneous Deities, and in general all Divinities that prefided over Tombs. The Invocation of the Manes of the Dead, feems to have been a thing very frequent among the Theffalians, but was ex- preily prohibited by the Romans.
MANGANUM, an Engine of War. See Ballifia. MANIA, in Medicine, a Difeafe popularly call'd Mad- nefs : See Madnefs. The Word is Greek, «*fi«, Fttry, Rage. MANICHEES ; a Set of antient Heretics, fo call'd from their Author Mattes or Manichees, a Terfian by Na- tion. This Herefy had its firft Rife about the Year 277, and fpread itfelf principally in Arabia, Egypt, and Africa. St. Epiphanius, who treats of it at length, obferves, that the true Name of this Herefiarch was Cubrieus ; and that he chang'd it for Manes, which in the Terfian or Babylonifi Language fignifies Veffel. A rich Widow, whofe Servant he had been, dying without Iffue, left him good ftore of Wealth; after which, he affumed the Title of Apoiile or Envoy of Jefus Chrift. He eftablifh'd two Principles, viz. a good one and an evil one. The firft, which he cal- led Light, did nothing but good ; and the fecond, which he call'd Darknefs, nothing but evil. This Philofophy is very antient, and Plutarch treats of it at large in his Ijis and Ofiris. Our Souls, according toManes, were made by the good Principle, and our Bodies by the evil one ; thofe two Principles being co-eternal and independent of each other. He borrow'd many things from the antient Gnoflics ; oq which account many Authors coniider the Manicheans as a Branch of the Gnafiics. In truth, their Doctrine was a Syftem of Philofophy, rather than of Religion. They made ufe of Amulets, in imitation of the Bafilidians ; and are faid to have made profeflion of Aftronomy and Aitro- logy. They denied that Jefus Chrift affumed a true hu- man Body, and maintain'd it was only imaginary. They pretended that the Law of Mofes did not come frbm God, or the good Principle, but from the evil one ; and that for this reafon it was abrogated. They abttain'd entirely from eating the Flefh. of any Animal; following herein the Doctrine of the antient Pythagoreans. The reft of their Errors may be feen in St. Epiphanius and St. Atiguf- tine ; which laft, having been of their Seel, may be pre- fumed to have been thoroughly acquainted with them.
Tho the Manichees profefs'd to receive the Books of the New Teftament ; yet, in effect, they only took fo much of them as fuited with their Opinions: throwing all upon Reafon, and quite fetting afide all Authority. They formed to themfelves a certain Idea of Chriftia- nifm ; and to this adjufted the Writings of the Apo- fltes; pretending that whatever was inconfiftent with this Idea, had been foifted into the New Teftament by later Writers, who were halfjerar. On the other hand, they made Fables and Apochryphal Books pafs for Apoftolical Writings ; and even are fufpected to have forged feveral others, the better to maintain their Errors. St. Epipha- nius gives a Catalogue of feveral publifh'd by Manes, and adds Extracts of fome of them. He was not contented with the Quality of Apoftle of Jefus Chrift, but alfo af- fumed that of the Paraclete, whom he had promifed to fend. He left feveral Difciples, and among others, Ad- das, Thomas, and Hermeas. Thefe he fent, in his life- time, into feveral Provinces to preach his Doclrine. Manes having undertaken to cure the King of Perfia's Son, and • not fucceeding, was clapt into Prifon upon the young Prince's Death ; whence he made his efcape, but was ap- prehended foon after, and burnt alive.
Towards the middle of the twelfth Century, the Seel of Manichees took a new face, on occafion of one Conftan- tine, an Artninian and Adherer to it ; who took upon him to fupprefs the reading of all other Books befides the Evangelifts and the Epiftles of St. Paul, which he ex- plain'd in fuch manner, a» to make them contain a new Syftem of Manichttifm. He entirely difcarded all the Writings of his Predeceflbrs, rejected the Chimera's of the Valentinians and their thirty Eons ; the Fable of Ma- nes, with regard to the Origin of Rain, which he made to be the Sweat of a young Man in hot Purfuit after a Maid ; and other Dreams, but ftill retain'd the Impurities
of Bafilides. In this manner he reformed Manichxifm, in- fomuch that his Followers made no fcruple of anathema- tizing Scythian, Bouddas, and even Manes himfelf ; Cmftan- tine being now their great Apoftle. . After he had In- duced an infinite number of People, he was at laft Honed by order of the Emperor.
The word Manichee comes from the Latin Manichm, which antient Authors maintain to have been formed of the two Greek Words, ffct'mt, Manna, and -jfc, Iff read; intimating that the Doarine of their Mafter was a kind of Manna, which he fpread every where.
M ANICORDION, a Mufical Inftrument, in form of a Spinett : See Spinett. Its Strings are cover'd with pieces of Scarlet Cloth, to deaden, as well as foften, the Sound ; whence it is alfo call'd the Dumb Spinett, and is much ufed in Nunneries for the Religious to learn to play on ; fo as not to difturb the Silence of the Dormitory. Scaliger makes the Manicord more antient than the Spinett and Harpfichord. Da Cange derives the word from Monochord, from a fuppofition this Inftrument has but one Cord ; but he is miftaken, it has fifty, or more.
MANIFESTO, an Apology, or public Declaration, in Writing, made by a Prince, fliewing his Intentions in any •Enterprize, the Motives that induced him to it, ancf the Reafons on which his Right and Pretentions are founded. _ MANILLE, or Menille, in Commerce, one of the prin- cipal Commodities carried by the Europeans to the Coafts of Africa, to traffic with the Negroes in exchange for Slaves; confifting of a large Brafs Ring, in form of a Bracelet, ei- ther flat or round, plain or engraven ; which the Natives ufe to deck themfelves withal, putting them on the Small
t. if Le S'- anJ ,he Thick of the Arm above the Elbow. The better iort among 'em wear Silver and Gold Manilles 5 but thefe are of their own manufacture; molt of the Monev they receive for their other Merchandizes being melted into Manilles.
MANIPULATION, a Term ufed in the Mines, to fig- nify the manner of digging the Silver, gu> out of the Earth. See Stiver.
MAN1PULE, Manipulas, among the Romans, was a little Body of Infantry, which, in the Time of Romulus, confut- ed of an hundred Men ; and, in the Times of the Confuls and firft Cefars, of two hundred. Each Manipuie had two Centurions, or Captains, call'd Manipularii, to command it ; one whereof was Lieutenant to the other. Each Cohort was divided into three Mcmipules, and each Manipuie into two Centuries.
'Tis true, Aulus Gellius quotes an old Author, one Cineciut, who lived in the Time of Hannibal, (whofe Prifoner he was) and who, writing on the Art of War, obferves, that, then, each Legion confided of fixty Centuries, of thirty Mani- fules, and of thirty Cohorts. And again, Varro and Vege- tius mention it as the leaft Divifion in the Army, only con- fiding of the tenth part of a Century ; and Spartian adds, that it contain'd no more than ten Men, which iliews that the Manipuie was not always the fame thine.
The Romans call'd this Company by the Name Manipuie, or Manipulas, as fignifying the Handful of Hay which they bore at the End of a Pole, to diftinguilh diemfelves by, e'er the Cuftom was introduced of bearing an Eagle for their Enfign; and hence came the Phrafe, an Handful of Men. regains, Modejlus, and Varro, give other Etymologies of the Word. The laft derives it from Mantis, a little Bo- dy of Men following the fame Standard. According to the former, they were fo call'd, becaufe they fought hand in hand, or all together. Contulernium autem Manipulus inca- batur ab eo quod conjunBis Manilas fariter dimicabant, are their Words.
Manipuie is alfo an Ecclcfiaftical Ornament, wore by the Priefts, Deacons and Subdeacons in the Romifh Church. It confifts of a little Fillet in form of a Stole, three or four Inches broad, and made of the fame Stuff with theCha- fuble ; fignifying and reprefenting an Handkerchief, which the Priefts in the Primitive Church wore on the Arm, to wipe off the Tears they were continually Iliedding for' the Sins of the People. There ftill remains a Mark of this LJfage in a Prayer fpoken by thofe who wear it, Merear, Do- mine, portare Manifulum Fletus ££> Doloris. Trie Greeks and Marotntes wear two Manipules, one on each Arm
MANIPULUS, in Phyfic, is ufed for a Meafure of Herbs, viz. an Handful ; which is a quantity often ufed in Prefcription amongft Fhyficians, and is generally marked with M.
MANNA, in Pharmacy, a medicinal Drug of great ufe in the modern Practice. Manna is a white Juice, or Li- quor, very fweet, Oozing either of it felf, or by Inciiton, from the Branches and Leaves of the Afhe, both wild and ordinary, during the Time of the Dog-days. Others will have it to be a Honey of the Air ; or a kind of Dew pro- ceeding from a Vapour rais'd from the Earth, and prepared in the Air, condens'd by the Cold, and gathered in the K k k k k k fist