Page:Cyclopaedia, Chambers - Volume 2.djvu/812
as ap Owen, Owen ap Harry, Harry ap PJoefe ; and the Jrilb JMtei ss fymaH Mac Weal, NeJ Mac Con, &c and the old Normans, Fit*, as John Em Robert, Robert Fit* Rilpio, &o. _
Scaltger, adds, That the Arabi ufed their Father's Name, or Surname, without their perfonal Name ; as, Aven-'Pace, Aven-Zoar, &c. q. d. Son of 'Pace, Son of Zoar, tSfaj as if 'Race had a Son at his Circumcifion, call'd E*fy> he would be call'd Aven-'Pace, concealing Haly ; but his Son, however he were nam'd, would be call'd Aven-Haly, £?C.
The Romans, in Time, multiplied their Stir-names : Be- tides the general Name of the Race or Family, call'd, alto, Gentilitium ; they took a particular one, to diitinguifiithe Branch of the Family, call'd Cognomen : and fometimes a Third, on account of fomc perfonal DiHinftionj as that of Africanns, by Scipio ; of forqnatus by Manlms. .
Thefe Three different Kinds of Surnames, had alfo their different Names, vm. flcmen, Cognomen, Agmmen ; but thefe laft were not Hereditary \ being, in effect, a kind oj Nick-names, if that Word be indifferent with rdpect to Good and Evil. , . . . . , „.
In thefe too, they have been imitated by later Times : Thus in our Englip Hiftory, we find that Edgar was call'd the 'Peacenble ; Mildred, tbs Unready ; Eimond, Iron-fide 3 Harold, Hare-foot ■ William, the Bajlard 5 Henry I. 2to#<
- '«* - >&«, Lack-land, &c. But as thefe Names were
never' bore by the Sons, Cambden thinks it Grange, that <Plantagenet fhould be accounted the Surname of the Royal Family of England, till jH&wy VEL 5 or 2W«r or 2Wor, that from ££$*? VII. to King James I. ; or that of Steward from %, OT5 1, to King George"; or,, that Htfgu fhould be efteem'd the Sur-name of the late Family of fracl) Kings ; or Sotir- bon of the prefent ; or Oldenburg of the Kings of Denmark', or Hapsbowg of the Emperors. SeePLATAGENET.
2?« Cfcff/we obferves, that Sur-names were known in France before the Year 987 5 when the Lords began to affume the Names of their Eemaines, Cambden relates, That they were firft taken up in England, a- little before the Conqueft, under King Edward the Confeffor : But he adds, they were never fully eftabli/rfd among the common People, till the Time ot Kinp EdwardVL: till then they varied with the Father's Name ; if the Father, E. gr. were call'd Richard or Roger, the Son was call'd Richardjbn or Hod^fon ; but from that Time they were fettled, fome fay, by Aft of Parliament.
The oldeft Sur-names, are thofe we find in Domefday- Book, moil of them taken from Places, with the Addition of de, as Goiefridus de Mannevilla, Walterus de Vernon, Robert deOily, iSc ; others from their Fathers, with Films, as Guliel- mits Films Gslcrrii; others from their Offices, as Eudo fPapifer, Gulielmm famerarius, Giflebertus Cccus, £S?c. But the inferior People are noted, fimply, by their Chriftian Names ■ without any Sur-names at all.
In Sweden, 'till the Year 1514, no Body ever took any Sur-name ; and the common People there, have none to this Dav ; nor even the native Irijb, "Poles and 'Bohemians, &c. 'Tis very late that the JVeljh have had any ; and thofe they have, are generally only form'd, by leaving out the a in ap, and annexing the p to their Father's Name, as in lieu of 'Evan ap Rice, they now fay, Evan 'Price ; for ap Bowel, 'Rowel,.
c Du fillet maintains, That all Sur-names were given by way of Sobriquets, or Nick-names ; and adds, That they are all fieaUTcant and intelligible, to thofe who understand the ancient "hialccls or the feveral Countries. The greateft Part of our Sur-names, and thofe of greateft. Account, Cambden JTicws, are lacteal, and borrowed from the Places in Normandy, t$c. where the refpective Perfbns, who came over with the Conqueror, and firft bore them, had their PoffefTtons, or their Birth ; fuch as Mortimer, Warren, Albigny, 'Percy, 1)evereux, Tankervil, Nevil, Tracy, Montfcrt, J£c. He adds, That there is not a Village in Normandy, but gives Name to fbmt Family in England. Others were taken from Places in England, as Afion, Sutton, Whiten, i£c.
The Saxon common People generally took their Father's or Mother's Chriftian Name, with the Addition of Son : Though many were Sur-named from their Trade, as Smith, Carpenter, "Taylor, Weaver, Fuller, ££?c. others from their Offices, as c Pcr-er, Shepherd, Carter, Cook, Butler, &c. others 'from their Complexion, as Fair, fax, Tigot, Blunt or Blind 5 ethers from Birds, asWren, Finch, &c. others from Beafls, as Lamb, Hare, Hart, &c. others from the Winds ; uthers from Saints, %£c.
SURPLUSAGE, in common Law, fignifies a Superfluity, or Addition, more than needcth ; which fometimes is the Caufe that a Writ abateth.
It is fometimes alfo applied to Matter of Account, and de- notes a greater Disburfement than the Charge of the Ac- comptant amounteth to.
SURREBUTTER, in Law, a feeofid Rebutter, or a Rebutting more than once. See Rebutter.
SURREJOYNDER, is a fecund Defence : of the Plain- tiff's A£lion, oppofitc to the Defendant's Rejoynder. See Rejoynder.
SURRENDER, an Inllrument in Writing, 'tef)ifyi ng That the particular Tenant of Lands and Tenements ml Life or Years, doth fufficiently confent and agree, That he who has the next or immediate Remainder or Reve r f 10 * thereof, fliall have the prefent Eftate of the fame in PofTef iion ; and that he yields and gives up the fame to him • f oc every Surrender ought, forthwith, to give PoflefTion of t ^ e Things far render" a.
There may alfo be a Surrender without Writing, whence a Surrender is divided into that in Deed, and that in Law.
Surrender-in-l)eed, is that which is really and fenfibly perform'd.
Snrrender-in-Law, is in the Intendment of Law, by way of Confequent, and not Actual. As if a Man have a Leafe of a Farm, and during the Term, he accepts of a new Leafe • this Act is in Law, a Surrender of the former.
There is alfo a cuftomary Surrender of" the Copy-hold, as may be feen in Coke jitp. Unlet, Secf. 74.
SURROGATE, a Perfon fubilituted or appointed in Room of another ; moft commonly of a Bifhop, or Eifiiop's Chancellor. See Bishop, Suffragan, &c.
SURSOLID, or SURDESOLID, in Arithmetic, the Fifth Power of a Number, or the Fourth Multiplication of any Number, confider'd as a Root. See Power.
The Number 2, for Inftance, confider'd as a Root, and multiplied by itfelf, produces Four, which is the Square, or fecond Power of 2 ; and 4 multiplied by 2, produces 8, the third Power, or the Cube or folid Number of 2 5 8, again, multiplied by 2, produces 16, the fourth Power, or §>uadra- to-quadratum of 2 ; and 16 multiplied once more by 2, pro- duces 32, the fifth Power, ox Sur folid, or Surdefolid Number of 2.
Sursolid Problem, is that which cannot be refblvcd, but by Curves of an higher Kind, than the Conic Sections. See Problem-
E, gr. To defcribe a regular Endecagon, or Figure of Eleven Sides in a Circle, it is required to defcribe an lfofceles Triangle on a Right Line given, whofe Angles at the Eafe, fliall be quintuple to that at the Vertex; which may eaiily be done by the Interferon of a Quadratrix, or any other Curve of the fecond Gender, as they are by fome called, but not by any lower Curve. See Curve.
SURVEYING, the Art or Aft of meafuring Lands 5 i. e. of taking the Dlmenfions of any Track of Ground, laying down the fame in a Map or Draught ; and finding the Content or Area thereof. See Measuring, Mat, &c.
Surveying, call'd alfo Geodefia, is a very ancient Art ; 'tis even held to have been the Firft, or primitive Part of Geo- metry, and that which gave Occafion to, and laid the Foun- dation of, all the reft. See Geometry.
Surveying confifts of Three Parts or Members ; the Firft, is the taking of the neccflary Meafures, and making the ncceffary Obfervations on the Ground itfelf: The Second, is the laying down of thefe Meafures and Obfervations on Paper ; and the Third, the finding the Area or Quantity of the Ground thus laid down.
The Firft is what we properly call Surveying. The Second we call 'Plotting or 'Protratling, or Mapping: And the Third, Cajling up.
The Firft, again, confifts of Two Parts, viz. the making of Obfervations for the Angles, and the taking of Meafures- for the Diftanccs.
The former of thefe is performed by fome one or other of the following Inftruments, viz,, the ^Theodolite, Circumfer enter. Semi-circle, 'Plane Table or Compafs -. The Defcription and Manner of ufing each whereof; fee under its refpec~tive Article, Theodolite, Circumferentor, Plane Ta- ble, Compass, ££c.
The latter is performed, by means either of the Chain or the Perambulator ; The Defcription and Manner of applying each whereof; fee under its rcfpeSive Article, Chain and Per ambulator.
The fecond Branch of Surveying, is perform'd by means of the ProtratJormid'Plotting Scale ; The Ufe, £S?c. whereof; fee under Protractor, Plottinc Scale, &c. See alfo Map.
The Third is perform'd, by reducing the feveral Divifions, Inclofurcs, &c. into Triangles, Squares, Trapeziums, 'Pa- rallelograms, £$c. but efpecially Triangles; and finding the Areis or Contents of thefe feveral Figures, by the Rules de- livered under the Articles Area, Triangle, Sojjare, £^ cr -
Surveying Crofs, is an Inftrument little known, and left ufed in England ; though in France, &c. it ferves in lieu of a Theodolite or the like Inftrument: It confifts of a brafs. Circle, or rather a circular Limb, graduated, and again di- vided into Four equal Parts, by two Right Lines cutting each other at right Angles in the Centre. At each of the Four Extremities of the Lines, and in the Centre are fix'd Sights. The whole is mounted on a Staff.
Surveying Wheel. See Perambulator or Way- wiser, r
SURVEYOR, one that hath the Over-fight and Care-ot
confiderable Works, Lands, i£c.