Page:Cyclopaedia, Chambers - Volume 2.djvu/9
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The ninth Letter of the Engijk Alphabet, is both Momfhyff.es, both JacQjfos and others, follow the Doc!™
I a Vowel and a Confonant ; agreeable to which two different Powers, it has two different Forms. The Hebrews call the j Confonant Jod "V from "V, Hand and Space, in regard it is fuppofed to reprefent the Hand clench'd, fo as to leave the Space underneath, void. With them, it was pronounced as the Confonant y, as it (till
utDnJarus touching the Unity of Nature and Perfon in Jclus Uir:ll. Jacobite in £%totf, is a Term of Reproach bellow d on fuchPerforis as dilallow the late Revolution, and ftill affcrt the Rights, and adhere to the Interetts of the late King James and his Line. JACOBUS, a Gold Coin worth 15 Shillings; fo called
among the Germans and forne other People. The Greeks! from King James the firtt ot England, in whofe Reigi
had no ; Confonant, and for that rcafon, ufed their Vowel were (truck. We ufually diflinguilh two kinds 01 Jaas-
i inftead of it, as coming the ncareitln Sound. The '-
French and Englijb have two kinds of') Confonants ; the
firft has a fnuffting kind of Sound, and ferves to modify
that of the Vowels, pretty much in the manner ofr,, as Jew, juft, jovial ; the latter is pronounced like the Hebrew Jod, Infiances of which we have in fome of our Words, which are indifferently written with a y or an i before a Vowel, as Voiage, Voyage, Loial, Loyal, &c. in which ce4es, the i is apparently a Confonant, as being a Motion of the Palate, which gives a Modification to the following
bus, the Old and the New ; the former worth 25 Shillings, weighing 6 Penny Weight 10 Grains; the latter called MoCarolus, worth 2; Shillings, in Weight 5 Penny Weight 20 Grains.
JADE, a grcenim Stone, bordering on the Colour of Olive, much eiieem'd for its Hardnefs, which exceeds that of Porphyry, Agat, and Jafper, and oidy to be cut with Powder ot Diamond. It is in mighty efteem among the Turks and Poles, who adorn all their fine Works with , it, and efpecially the Handles of their Sabres. This Vowel. The Vowel ;, according to Plato, is proper for Stone applied to the Reins, is faid to be a Prcfervative expreffing fine and delicate things: On which account, from the Nephritic Cholic. Mr. Berber tells us that the that Verfe in l r irgil, ^_1 ■
Accipiunt inimicum imbrem, rimifque fatifcujlt ;
Which abounds in i's, is generally admired. The Vowel i was the only Vowel which the Romans did not mark with a Da(h of the Pen, to /hew when it was long ; inltead of which, to denote its Length, they ufed to make it bigger than ordinary, as in Pljo, VIvus, &c. According to L>p;;.i, they repeated if, when it svasrtnh^ to.-.v j as'lh OiL Tney fometimes alfo denoted the Length of this Letter, by ad- ding e to it, and turning it into a Dipthong, as Divei for
Ttivl, Ommis for (hums, &c. I was antient'ly a Numeral this does not appea/to have been known to "theAnt'ienl Letter, and fignifW a Hundred, according to the Yerfe, it has its place in'Medicine only fince tliofe parts of Am I. C. Compar erit, & Centum flgtijicabit. I in the ordinary " Roman way of Numbering fignifies One ; and when re- peated, fignifies as many Units as it is repeated times. In Abbreviations and Cyphers, I. frequently reprefents the whole Word Tefus, whereof it is the firit Letter.
JABAJAHITE, the Name ofaSeft among the Muf- fulmcn, who, according to Ricaut, teach, That God is not perfectly wife, that his Knowledge does not extend to evety thing; and that Time and Experience have fur-
Caravans of Thibet carry it to Cachcmire, and that the Ga- libis prize it as highly as Diamond. The Natives of South- America value it on account of the 'Virtues they attribute to it in the Epilepfy, Difeafes of the Reins, the Stone and Gravel. In a Treatifc of it printed at Paris, 'tis cal- led the Divine Stone.
JALAP, is the Root of a Plant not much unlike our Bryony, and is therefore by fome called Bryonia Peruvia- na ; fer.it is. brought to us chiefly from Peru and New- Spa,,, lheMechoa c :<n ,7,4 *i, , rc r „ cko ned of a Species, and therefore as this is fometimes called Mccbnacana „i,ra that goes as often by the Name of Jalapium album. °As
'tea, which produce if, have been traded to by Europeans. That which breaks blacked, moll brittle, found and Shining within fide, is the heft; by reafon the refinous Parts, which give it thole Properties, are fuppofed to con- tain its Medicinal Virtues. Some take great pains to ex- trafl its Refin, which is to be done with anv fpirituous Menfouum, and afterwards want CorreSors for it. The mofl common, is Salt of Tartar or Loaf-Sugar; but if correfting confitis in feparating its Parts, as "it certainly with the Knowledge ot many things whereof does, the drawing it from the Root, and making it into he was before ignorant: Thus, fay they, not being ap- a Refin, mull be very needlefs. Monfieur BdLc who prized Jrom all Eternity of every Event that (hall happen hath made fevcral Experiments upon it, fays, it is one of
the bell Cathartics we have, taken as Nature only has prepared it. See Qjancy's Difpenl'atory.
IAMBUS, in theGreek and Latin Poetry, is the Nam» of a Foot in a Verfe, confining of a long and fhort Sylla- ble, as Horace expreffes ir, .
Syllaba longa brevi fubjeHa vocatur Iambus.
The fame Poet calls the Iambus a fwift rapid Foot, Pes G- tus. The Word, according to fome, takes its Name from Iambus, the Son of Pan and Echo, who invented this Foot or rather ufed fharp biting Expi.'ffions to Cere,, "ben af- flicted for the Death ot Projerfinc. Others rather derive in the Air, which reflects Light in the Dark, commonly it irom the Greek lis, Yenenum, Pci/on, or from UuCila, haunting Church-yards, Fens, and Privies, as (learning out muledico, I rail or revile, becaufe the Vcrfes comnofed of of a fat Soil : It alfo flics about Rivers, Hedges, Z£c. Iambus's were at firtt only ufed inSa-'^e. where there is a continual Fluxof Air, and leads Pcrfons, IAMBIC, a kind of Verfe, found in-the Grreji and La- who unwarily follow it, out of their way. tin Poets. An Iambic is a Verfe confuting whellv or at
JACOB'S Staff, is a Mathematical Inftrument for taking leall in great part, of Iambus's, or Feet fo (jailed. ' Iambic Heights and Ditlanccs; the fame with Crofs-Staff. Verfes may be confidered, either with regard to the Di-
. JACOBIN, Dominican^ A Name given in Trance to the_ verfity or the Number of their Feet. Under each of
which Heads there are diltinft kinds, which have different Names. (1.) Pure Iambics are thofe which confill entirely of Iambus's, as the fourth Piece of Catullus, made in praife
in the World, he is obliged to govern it according to the Chance»and Occurrence of thofe Events.
JACK in a Ship, is that Sail that is hoilted up at the Sprit-Sail-Top-Matt-Head. In Falconry, Jack is the Male of the Birds of Sport.
JACK by the Hed^c, is an Herb that grows wild by Hedge-fides, and under Banks, with a broad Leaf, and hath the Smell of Garlick : It is eaten as other Sallad- Herbs, efpecially by Country People, and much ufed in Broth.
JACK in a Lanthom, or Will with a Wifp, and fome- times Ignis Tatuus, is a certain Meteor, or clammy Vapour
of a Ship ,
- lus il!e, quern videtis Hofpites.
Religious who follow the Rule of St.Dominic, on occalion of their principal Convent, which is near the Gate of St. James at Paris, and which before they became poffeffed of it in the Year 1218, was an Hofpital of Pilgrims dedicated to the faid Saint. Others maintain, that they have been cal- led Jacobins ever fince they were eftablifhed in Italy, in regard they pretended to imitate the Lives of Apo- ftles. They are alfo called Friars Predicants, and make one of the four Orders of Mendicants. See Dominican.
JACOBITE, a Secf of Hereticks who were antiently a Branch of the Eutycbians, and are ftill fubfifling in the Levant. They were fo called from one James of Syria, who was one of the Heads of the Mompbyfites, or Secta- ries, who own'd but one Nature in Jefus Chrift. The Monophyfttes are a Sect of vaft Extent, comprehending the The third kind are the Tree Iambic Verfes, in which 'tis Armenians, Cophti, and Aly[pnians, but thofe among them not abfolutely neceffary there fhould be anv Iambus ex- who are properly Jacobites, are but few ; and among thofe cepting in the lall Foot ; of which kind are' all thofe of too, there is a Divifion, fome being Romaniz'd, and others Phiedrus:
perfeaiy averfe to the Romiih Church : Each of which , . . • , . ...
Parties have their feveral Patriarchs, the one at Carrmit, Jr '" U " K ""° ft"""- V" «'<«'«» apfctir.
and the other at Perzafharan. As to their Faith, all the
The fecond kind ate thofe called (imply Iamlics. have no Iambus's but in the even F'eet, tho' there arefcims> times Tribracbsa added to them, excepting to the lait, which is always an Iambus ; and in the uneven Feet they have Spondees, Anapefls, and even a Daflyle in the firft : Such is that of Medea in Ovid,
Servare potui, perdere an poffm yogas?