Page:Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (1870) - Volume 1.djvu/763

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CICERO. 745

notices, in the edition of the whole works by Nobbe, 1 vol. 4to., Leipz. 1827, and again with some improvements by Orelli, vol. iv. pt. ii., 1828.

5. Historical and Miscellaneous works.

1. * * De meis Consiliis s. Meorum Consiliorum Epositio. We find from Asconius and St. Augustin that Cicero published a work under some such title, in justification of his own policy, at the period when he feared that he might lose his election for the consulship, in consequence of the opposition and intrigues of Crassus and Caesar. A few sentences only remain. (Ascon. ad Orat. in Tog. Cand.; Augustin. c. Julian. Pelag. v. 5; Fronto, Exc. Elocut.)

2. De Consulatu (περὶ τῆς ὑπατείας). The only purely historical work of Cicero was a commentary on his own consulship, written in Greek and finished before the month of June, в. с. 60, not one word of which has been saved. (Ad Att. ii. 1; Plut. Caes. 8; Dion Cass. xlvi. 21; comp. ad Fam. v. 12.)

3. De Laude Caesaris. It is clear from the commencement of a letter to Atticus (iv. 5; 10th April, в. с. 56), that Cicero had written a book or pamphlet in praise of Caesar. He does not give the title, and was evidently not a little ashamed of his performance.

4. * * M. Cato s. Laus M. Catonis. A panegyric upon Cato, composed after his death at Utica in B. C. 46, to which Caesar replied in a work entitled Anticato. [Caesar, p. 555, a.] A few words only remain. (Ad Att. xii. 40; Gell. xiii. 19; Macrob. vi. 2; Priscian. x. 3, p. 485, ed. Krehl.)

5. Laus Porciae. A panegyric on Porcia, the sister of M. Cato and wife of L. Domitus Ahenobarbus, written in B. C. 45, soon after her death. (Ad Att. xiii. 37, 48.)

6. * * Oeconomica ex Xenophonte. Probably not so much a close translation as an adaptation of the treatise of Xenophon to the wants and habits of the Romans. It was composed in the year B. C. 80, or in 79, and was divided into three books, the arguments of which have been preserved by Servius. The first detailed the duties of the mistress of a household at home, the second the duties of the master of a household out of doors, the third was upon agriculture. The most important fragments are contained in the eleventh and twelfth books of Columella, which together with those derived from other sources have been carefully collected by Nobbe (Ciceronis Opera, Leipzig, 1827), and will be found in Orelli's Cicero, vol. iv. pt. 2. p. 472. (Serv. ad Virg. Georg. i. 43; Cic. de Off. ii. 24.)

7. Chorographia. Priscian, according to the text usually received (xvi. 16), mentions "Chorographiam Ciceronianam," but the most recent editor, Krehl, supposes "orthographiam" to to the true reading, while others substitute "chronographiam." If "chorographia" be correct, it may refer to the geographical work in which Cicero was engaged B. C. 59, as we read in letters to Atticus. (ii. 4, 6, 7.)

8. Admiranda. A sort of commonplace book or register of curious facts referred to by the elder Pliny. (H. N. xxxi. 8, 28, comp. xxix. 16, vii. 2, 21.)

It is doubtful whether works under the following titles were ever written by Cicero:—

1. De Orthographia. 2. De Re Militari. 3. Synonyma. 4. De Numerosa Oratione ad Tironem. 5. Orpheus s. de Adolescente Studioso. 6. De Memoria. Any tracts which have been published from time to time under the above titles as works of Cicero, such as the De Re Militari attached to many of the older editions, are unquestionably spurious. (See Angelo Mai, Catalog. Cod. Ambros. cl.; Bandini, Catalog. Bibl. Laurent. iii. p. 465, and Suppl. ii. p. 381; Fabric. Bibl. Lat. i. p. 211; Orelli, Ciceronis Opera, vol. iv. pt. ii. p. 584.)

The Editio Princeps of the collected works of Cicero was printed at Milan by Alexander Minutianus, 4 vols. fol., 1498, and reprinted with a few changes due to Budaeus by Badius Ascensius, Paris, 4 vols. fol., 1511. Aldus Manutius and Naugerius published a complete edition in 9 vols. fol., Venet., 1519-1523, which served as the model for the second of Ascensius, Paris, 1522, 2 or 4 vols. fol. None of the above were derived from MS. authorities, but were merely copies of various earlier impressions. A gradual progress towards a pure text is exhibited in those which follow:—Cratander, Basil. 1528, 2 vols. fol., corrected by Bentinus after certain Heidelberg MSS.; Hervagius, Basil. 1534, 4 vols. fol.; Junta, Ven. 1534—1537, 4 vols. fol., an entirely new recension by Petrus Victorius, who devoted his attention especially to the correction of the Epistles from the Medicean MSS.; Car. Stephanus, Paris, 1555, 4 vols. fol., containing many new readings from MSS. in France; Dionysius Lambinus, Lutet. ap. Bernardum Turrisanum, 1566, 4 vols. fol., with an ample commentary,—in every respect more worthy of praise than any of the foregoing, and of the greatest importance to the critic; Gruter, Hamburg, Froben. 1618, 4 vols. fol., including the collations of sundry German, Belgian, and French MSS., followed in a great measure by Jac. Gronovius, Lug. Bat. 1691, 4 vols. 4to., and by Verburgius, Amst. Wetstein. 1724, 2 vols. fol., or 4 vols. 4to., or 12 vols. 8vo., which comprehends also a large collection of notes by earlier scholars; Olivet, Genev. 1743—1749, 9 vols. 4to., with a commentary "in usum Delphini," very frequently reprinted; Ernesti, Hal. Sax. 1774—1777, 5 vols. 8vo., in 7 parts, immeasurably superior, with all its defects, to any of its predecessors, and still held by some as the standard; Schütz, Lips. 1814—1823, 20 vols., small 8vo., in 28 parts, with useful prolegomena and summaries prefixed to the various works. The small editions printed by Elzevir, Amst. 1684—1699, 11 vols. 12mo., by Foulis, Glasg. 1749, 20 vols. 16mo., and by Barbou, Paris, 1768, 14 vols. 12mo., are much esteemed on account of their neatness and accuracy.

All others must now, however, give place to that of Orelli, Turic. 1826—1837, 9 vols. 8vo., in 13 parts. The text has been revised with great industry and judgment, and is as pure as our present resources can render it, while the valuable and well-arranged selection of readings placed at the bottom of each page enable the scholar to form an opinion for himself. There is unfortunately no commentary, but this want is in some degree supplied by an admirable "Onomasticon Tullianum," drawn up by Orelli and Baiter jointly, which forms the three concluding volumes.

The seventh volume contains the Scholiasts upon Cicero, C. Marius Victorinus, Rufinus, C. Julius