sical edition (1876) of his father's ‘Hymns of Praise and Prayer;’ he published also some tunes and an anthem separately. He wrote for the ‘Theological Review’ and the ‘Spectator,’ and contributed to ‘Bibliographica’ (1895) and to Murray's ‘Oxford Dictionary’ (Inquirer, 24 Dec. 1898; Christian Life, 24 Dec. 1898).
[A biography of Martineau by Principal Drummond and Professor Upton is expected shortly. Dublin University Magazine, April 1877, p. 434 (with an excellent portrait); Cassell's National Portrait Gallery, No. 78 (7 Nov. 1877, with memoir by Rev. Charles Wicksteed, on the basis of Martineau's autobiographical memoranda); Julian's Dictionary of Hymnology, 1892, p. 715; Inquirer, 20 Jan. 1900 (special number; portrait); The Bookman, February 1900 (excellent portrait); Jackson's James Martineau, 1900 (two portraits); authorities cited above; personal recollection.]
MASSIE, THOMAS LEEKE (1802-1898), admiral, was born at Coddington Hall, Cheshire, on 20 Oct. 1802. He entered the navy in October 1818 on board the Rochefort, flagship in the Mediterranean of Sir Thomas Francis Fremantle [q. v.] and later on of Sir Graham Moore [q. v.] In different ships he continued serving in the Mediterranean; was wrecked in the Columbine brig on the coast of the Morea, 25 Jan. 1824; was in the Martin at the demonstration against Algiers [see Neale, Sir Harry Burrard]; was frequently engaged in boat affairs with Greek pirates, and was in the Asia at Navarino on 20 Oct. 1827. For this he was rewarded with promotion to lieutenant on a death vacancy, 11 Nov. 1827. As a lieutenant he served mostly in the Channel, North Sea, and Lisbon station; was for three years on the South American station with Captain Robert Smart in the Satellite, and for two years in the Mediterranean as first lieutenant of the Carysfort with Henry Byam Martin. On 28 June 1838—the queen's coronation—he was made commander; and in 1839 was, with some others, sent out to Constantinople to assist in organising the Turkish navy. They were, however, recalled after about six months; and in March 1840 Massie was appointed (as second captain) to the Thunderer with Maurice Frederick Fitzhardinge Berkeley, afterwards Lord Fitzhardinge [q. v.] In the Thunderer he took part in the operations on the coast of Syria in the summer and autumn of 1840, culminating in the capture of Acre, for which he was promoted to be captain on 17 March 1841. In April 1849 he was appointed to the Cleopatra, which he commanded in the East Indies and China and during the Burmese war. In September 1854 he commissioned the Powerful, which during the latter part of 1855 and 1856 was on the North American station. He had no further service, but became rear-admiral on 7 Nov. 1860, vice-admiral on 2 April 1866, and admiral on 20 Oct. 1872. He died at Chester on 20 July 1898.
[O'Byrne's Naval Biogr. Dict.; Times, 21 July 1898; Navy Lists.]
MAX MÜLLER, FRIEDRICH (1823-1900), orientalist and philologist, was the only son of the distinguished poet Wilhelm Müller (1794-1827), and of Adelheid, eldest daughter of Präsident von Basedow, prime minister of the small duchy of Anhalt-Dessau. Born at Dessau on 6 Dec. 1823, and losing his father when scarcely four years old, he lived with his mother and attended the grammar school of his native town till 1836. He early showed a talent for music and came into contact with several distinguished composers, such as Felix Mendelssohn and Carl Maria von Weber. He was the godson of the latter, and received his name Max from the leading character in the ‘Freischütz,’ which had been finished just before his birth. For a time he seriously contemplated taking up music as a profession, but was dissuaded from doing so by Mendelssohn. The last five years of his school life he spent at Leipzig, living in the family of Dr. Carus, an old friend of his father, and continuing his education at the ‘Nicolai-Schule’ there. He had decided to adhere to the study of the classical languages; but in order to qualify for a small bursary from Anhalt-Dessau he found he would have to pass his examination of maturity (‘Abiturienten-examen’), not at Leipzig, but at Zerbst, a small town in that state. For this purpose he was obliged to acquire a considerable knowledge of mathematics and other non-classical subjects in an incredibly short time; nevertheless he succeeded in passing his examination with distinction. He accordingly entered the university of Leipzig in the spring of 1841. There he attended no fewer than ten courses of lectures, on the average, during each term on the most varied subjects, including the classical lectures of Professors Haupt, Hermann, Becker, besides others on old German, Hebrew, Arabic, psychology, and anthropology. He was, however, soon persuaded by Professor Hermann Brockhaus, the first occupant of the chair of Sanskrit, founded in 1841, to devote himself chiefly to learning the classical language of ancient India. The first result