Page:Dictionary of National Biography. Sup. Vol III (1901).djvu/192

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Mitchell
Mitchell
178

don, 1885, 4to). In 1894 he retired from his professorship, and in 1895 was presented with his portrait, painted by Sir George Reid. He was made D.D. of St. Andrews in 1862, and honorary LL.D. of Glasgow in 1892. He divided his later years between his house at Gowan Park, near Brechin, and 56 South Street, St Andrews. He died at St. Andrews on 22 March 1899, and was buried in Brechin cathedral churchyard. He married, in 1852, the eldest daughter of Michael Johnstone of Archbank, near Moffat, and was survived by three sons and four daughters.

Mitchell published: 1. ‘The Westminster Confession of Faith,’ 1866, 8vo; 3rd ed. 1867. 2. ‘The Wedderburns and their Work,’ 1867, 4to. 3. ‘Minutes of the Westminster Assembly’ (with Dr. John Struthers), 1874, 8vo. 4. ‘The Westminster Assembly’ (Baird Lectures), London, 1883, 8vo; new edit. Philadelphia, 1895. 5. ‘Catechisms of the Church of Scotland,’ Edinburgh, 1886, 8vo. 6. ‘The Scottish Reformation,’ ed. D. Hay Fleming, with biographical sketch by Dr. James Christie, London, 1900, 8vo. Mitchell also edited for the Scottish Text Society the ‘Richt Vey to Heuine,’ by John Gau [q. v. Suppl.], in 1888, and the ‘Gude and Godlie Ballatis’ from the 1567 version in 1897. For the Scottish Historical Society he edited in 1892 and 1896 two volumes of ‘The Records of the Commissions of the General Assembly,’ 1646–50. He also published an edition of Archbishop Hamilton's ‘Catechism’ (1882), and three lectures at St. Giles's, Edinburgh (St. Giles's Lectures, 1st ser. No. 4, 4th ser. No. 1, and 6th ser. No. 8). Of his numerous contributions to periodical literature and encyclopædias a list of the most important is given in Dr. Christie's memoir (pp. xxvi–xxvii).

[Mitchell's Works in Brit. Mus. Libr.; Dr. Christie's biogr. sketch prefixed to the Scottish Reformation, 1900; A. K. H. Boyd's Twenty-five Years of St. Andrews, i. 22, ii. 221; Mrs. Oliphant's Memoir of Principal Tulloch, p. 7; Knight's Principal Shairp and his Friends; Who's Who, 1899; Times, 23 March 1899; English Hist. Review, January 1901.]

A. F. P.

MITCHELL, PETER (1824-1899), Canadian politician, was born of Scottish parents at Newcastle in the county of Northumberland, New Brunswick, on 24 Jan. 1824. Educated at the county grammar school, he studied law and was called to the bar of the province of New Brunswick in 1848. He practised his profession for four years, and then entered into partnership with a Mr. Hawe in the business of lumbering and shipbuilding. In 1858 he was elected to the assembly as member for his native county, and, two years later, became minister in the cabinet of Samuel Leonard Tilley [q. v.] He was called to the New Brunswick legislative council in 1860.

Mitchell took no part in the Charlottetown conference of 1864, whose object was a union of the maritime provinces only. But when in the same year the larger scheme of uniting British America arose, he attended the meeting at Quebec (10 Oct.) as delegate of his province, and assisted in drawing up the basis of confederation known as the Quebec resolutions. On the delegates' return the government of (Sir) Samuel Leonard Tilley [q. v.] submitted the plan to the popular vote, and was defeated by a large majority (1865). Albert Smith then formed a cabinet whose element of cohesion was opposition to confederation. Shortly afterwards Lieutenant-governor Gordon, who had himself opposed the measure, received instructions to forward the movement. For this purpose he called Mitchell to his assistance, and a line of action was taken which, however necessary in the circumstances, can scarcely be considered constitutional to-day. On 8 March 1866 Gordon addressed the houses and declared in favour of union. During the negotiations and debates that ensued, so many supporters deserted the ministers that they resigned in a body (13 April). Mitchell was thereupon asked to form a cabinet on the basis of confederation. He became himself premier and president of the council, while Tilley took office as provincial secretary. Dissolving the assembly, he forthwith appealed to the people. The moment was well chosen, for the fenian invasion of the frontier had demonstrated the need of consolidating British America. The real issue at the polls thus became confederation or annexation to the United States. Mitchell triumphed by a vote of nearly four to one.

A short session followed, the house sitting from 26 June till 7 July. The legislature was content to vote confidence in the ministry and leave their course of action 'unfettered by any expression of opinion other than what had been given by the people and their representatives.' In the final confederation conference which took place at Westminster on 4 Dec. 1866, the New Brunswick delegates had, therefore, a free hand. They made use of it to obtain concessions that gratified the province: a representation of twelve members in the dominion senate and fifteen in the dominion House of Commons ; a reservation of export duties in