[Richardson's Local Historian's Tabie-Book of Durham, Historical Division, iii. 197; Mackenzie and Ross's View of the County of Durham, ii. 212.]
published. Both in his artistic and mathematical studies he received valuable assistance from his uncle. Alfer completing the education of his uncle's children he became mathematical teacher at Witton-le-Wear, and began also the business of a land surveyor. Shortly after his marriage he was appointed land agent to Lord Tankerville at Chillingham, a situation he retained till his death, 4 June 1819, in his sixty-ninth year. Bailey engraved several of the plates for the works of William Hutchinson, the topographer of Cumberland, Durham, and Northumberland. He devoted also much of his attention to the natural sciences, especially mineralogy, chemistry, hydraulics, and pneumatics, and his scientific acquirements were turned by him to excellent practical account in promoting improvements in rural economy, in 1795 he published an 'Essay on the Construction of the Plough,' in which he employed mathematical calculations to demonstrate the advantages of the alterations he proposed. He was also the joint author of the reports on the counties of Cumberland, Durham, and Northumberland, drawn up for the Board of Agriculture.
BAILEY, NATHAN or NATHANIEL (d. 1742), lexicographer, published in 1721 'An Universal Etymological English Dictionary,' which was greatly esteemed in its day. The library of the British Museum contains copies of no fewer than twenty-five separate editions of this work. Of the compiler nothing is known beyond the fact that he belonged to the seventh-day baptists, being admitted to membership 6 Nov. 1691, and kept a boarding school at Stepney, where he died on 27 June 1742. A supplementary volume of his dictionary appeared in 1727, and in 1730 a folio, entitled 'Dictionarium Britannicum, collected by several hands. The Mathematical part by G. Gordon, the Botanical by P. Miller. The whole revis'd and improv'd with many thousand additions by N. Bailey.' This contains many technical terms. Thirty editions of the dictionary appeared, the latest at Glasgow in 1802, and it was reprinted by various booksellers. It is the basis of the English-German dictionaries of Arnold (3rd edition, 1761), A. E. Klausing (8th edition, 1792), and J. A. F. Krüger (11th edition, 1810). Lord Chatham is said to have read it through twice, and Chatterton obtained many sham-antique words from Bailey and Kersey. Johnson made an interleaved copy the foundation of his own. Bailey also published a spelling-book in 1726; 'All the Familiar Colloquies of Erasmus Translated,' 1733, of which a new edition appeared in 1878; 'The Antiquities of London and Westminster,' 1726; 'Dictionarium Domesticum,' 1736; Selections from Ovid and Phædrus; and 'English and Latin Exercises.' In 1883 appeared 'English Dialect Words of the Eighteenth Century as shown in the . . . Dictionary of N. Bailey, with an introduction by W. E. A. Axon (English Dialect Society),' giving biographical and bibliographical details.[Watt's Bibl. Brit.; Gent, Mag. xii. 387; Chalmers's Biogr. Dict.; Notes and Queries, 5th series, i. 448, 514, ii. 156, 258, 514, iii. 175, 298, 509, iv. 276, vii. 447, viii. 52.]
BAILEY, SAMUEL (1791–1870), philosophical writer, was the second son and fifth child of Joseph Bailey, of Burngreave, by Mary, daughter of Mr. Eaden, master of the free writing school at Sheffield. Samuel was educated by his maternal grandfather and at the Moravian school of Fulneck. He was a reserved boy, and his only recreation was riding upon a schoolfellow's back. On leaving school, Samuel entered the office of his father, who had risen from the position of artisan to be a general merchant at Sheffield, and who was master-cutler in 1801. The son was one of the first Sheffield merchants who visited America in order to establish business connections with that country. Bailey's attention, however, was gradually diverted from business to literary and political pursuits. He became known as an able author by various essays published in 1821 and the following years. In 1828 he was elected one of the town trustees. He became a candidate for the representation of Sheffield on the election which followed the Reform Bill in 1832. Having retired from his business, he was prepared to devote himself to political life. His principles resembled those of the 'philosophical radical;' he advocated triennial parliaments, vote by ballot, and the abolition of tithes and taxes on knowledge. The anti-corn law rhymer called him the 'Hallamshire Bentham.' Messrs. Parker and Silk Buckingham, however, were elected, and at the close of the poll Bailey, with 812 votes, was the last of four candidates. The prejudice of practical men against 'theoretical' politicians told against him; but the defeat of a distinguished writer was felt to be discreditable to his native place, and enthusiastic supporters founded a 'Bailey Club,' intended to secure his election at the next opportunity. He was put forward as