Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 09.djvu/435

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V. M. Picot, after Zoffany, published 16 April 1771, and a smaller portrait in H. de Janvry's ‘Miniatures of Celebrated Musicians.’

[Grove's Dict. of Music, i. 331; Rees's Encyclopædia; British Museum Music Catalogue; European Mag. January 1783; Gent. Mag. September 1817; Thespian Dictionary; Pohl, Mozart und Haydn in London, 54, &c.; Musical Quarterly Mag. vi. 354; Cervetto's Will, Probate Registry, communicated by Mr. J. Challoner Smith.]

W. B. S.

CERVETTO, JAMES (1749?–1837), the natural son of Giacobbe Basevi or Cervetto [q. v.], was born in London about 1749. He learnt the violoncello from his father, whom he soon excelled as a performer, his tone in particular being remarkably pure in quality. His first appearance took place at the little theatre in the Haymarket on 23 April 1760, when the advertisement stated that his age was eleven. The other performers at this concert were Miss Burney, aged eleven, Miss Schmaehling (afterwards celebrated as Mme. Mara), whose age was stated to be nine, though she was really eleven, and Barron, aged thirteen. After 1763 he travelled abroad, playing in most of the capitals of Europe; but he was in London in 1765, when he played at a concert given by Parry, the harpist. In 1771 he became a member of the queen's private band, and in 1780 he joined Lord Abingdon's private orchestra. On the institution of the Professional Concerts in 1783 Cervetto was engaged as soloist; at the first concert he played a violoncello concerto by Haydn. During the earlier part of his career Cervetto was in friendly rivalry with Crosdill [q. v.]; but on his father's death he inherited a large fortune and retired from the active exercise of his profession. The younger Cervetto was a member of the Royal Society of Musicians for seventy-two years. He wrote a few unimportant pieces of music, mostly for the violoncello. He died on Sunday, 5 Feb. 1837.

[Authorities as under Giacobbe Cervetto; Musical World, 10 Feb. 1837; Dictionary of Musicians, 1827; Annual Register, 1837, p. 175; Mendel's Musikalisches Conversations-Lexikon.]

W. B. S.

CESTRETON, ADAM de (d. 1269), was one of the justices itinerant in the reign of Henry III. He is said to have been the king's chaplain, and on 28 Nov. 1265 he received a grant for life of the mastership of the domus conversorum, an establishment for converted Jews, which Henry III had founded about 1231 in New Street, London, now called Chancery Lane. In 52 Hen. III (1267–8) he sat as judge in nine different counties, sometimes alone and sometimes in conjunction with Richard de Hemington. He died in the following year, and was succeeded as master of the domus conversorum by Thomas de la Leye.

[Newcourt's Repertorium, i. 338; Excerpta e Rot. Fin. ii. 465, 466, 468–73, 475–78; Foss's Judges of England, ii. 294.]

H. B.

CHABHAM or CHOBHAM, THOMAS de (fl. 1230), theologian, is mentioned as sub-dean of Salisbury in 1214 and 1230 (Le Neve, Fasti, ii. 619, ed. Hardy; comp. Leland, Comm. de Script. Brit. cclxxxvi. 299; Tanner, Bibl. Brit. p. 172). He was the author of a ‘Summa de pœnitentia et officiis ecclesiasticis,’ which is still extant in manuscript. Other works enumerated by Bale (Script. Brit. Cat. iv. 98, p. 379) are ‘Speculum ecclesiæ,’ ‘Tractatus de baptismo,’ and ‘De peccatis in genere,’ besides ‘Commentarii’ and ‘Sermones.’ Chabham has been generally identified by biographers with Thomas de Cobham [q. v.], who was bishop of Worcester in the fourteenth century. But it is clear from the manuscripts (Coxe, Catal. of Oxford MSS., University, cxix. 35 b, Oriel, xvii. 6 a, and Queen's, ccclxii. 84 b) that the writer of the treatise ‘De pœnitentia’ was known only as sub-dean of Salisbury, and two of the manuscripts cited date from before the end of the thirteenth century. In these the spelling of the author's name varies between ‘Chabeham,’ ‘Chobham,’ and ‘Chebeham;’ that of the sub-dean is given by Tanner as ‘Chabaam,’ and by Le Neve as ‘Chabaum.’ The bishop's name, on the other hand, seems to have been invariably spelled with a simple C; he is described by contemporary writers as canon of St. Paul's or of York, both which preferments he held, but not as sub-dean of Salisbury. The repetition of the name therefore among the officers of Salisbury Cathedral, found in Le Neve (l. c.) under the later date, plainly in order to suit Bishop Cobham, must be an error.

[Authorities cited above.]

R. L. P.

CHABOT, CHARLES (1815–1882), expert in handwriting, belonged to a Huguenot family, and was born at Battersea in 1815. He was originally a lithographer, but gradually acquired a large private practice as an expert in handwriting, while his unswerving integrity, no less than his skill, made him in much request in the law courts. He gave evidence in the Roupell and Tichborne trials, and in some other important cases his testimony practically governed the decisions. In 1871 Chabot examined professionally the handwriting of the letters of Junius and compared it with the handwriting of those