Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 10.djvu/464

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Trade.’ In two parts. London, 1788, 8vo; 2nd ed., London, 1788, 8vo. 3. ‘An Essay on the Comparative Efficiency of Regulation or Abolition, as applied to the Slave Trade …,’ London, 1789, 8vo. 4. ‘Letters on the Slave Trade and the State of the Natives in those parts of Africa which are contiguous to Fort St. Louis and Goree, written at Paris in Dec. 1789 and Jan. 1790,’ London, 1791. 4to. 5. ‘A Portraiture of Quakerism …,’ London, 1806, 3 vols. 8vo; 2nd ed., London, 1807, 8vo; 3rd ed., London, 1807, 8vo. Of the first edition of this work 2,500 copies were sold without any public advertisement being issued by the publisher. Lord Jeffrey reviewed it in the ‘Edinburgh Review’ for April 1807. 6. ‘Three Letters (one of which has appeared before) to the Planters and Slave-merchants, principally on the subject of Compensation,’ London, 1807, 8vo. 7. ‘History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave Trade by the British Parliament,’ London, 1808, 2 vols. 8vo; new ed., with prefatory remarks on the subsequent abolition of slavery, London, 1839, 8vo. Clarkson in this ‘History’ of the anti-slavery agitation gives ‘a quaint chart showing how the impulse spread till it converged upon a single area.’ A controversy subsequently raged between the followers of Clarkson and the followers of Wilberforce, as to the share taken by the respective leaders in the bringing about of the abolition of the slave trade, and Wilberforce's sons, who stoutly supported the cause of their father's predominant influence, saw much ground for offence in Clarkson's chart, which gave, in their opinion, far too little prominence to the stimulus of the ‘Evangelical’ party, which was generally known as the Clapham sect, and of which Wilberforce was a leading spirit. Sir James Stephen, in his ‘Essays in Ecclesiastical Biography’ (art. ‘William Wilberforce’), notices in judicial language the unbecoming rivalry between the friends of Clarkson and the friends of Wilberforce. But Sir James Stephen is somewhat severe on Sergeant Talfourd, who in his life of Charles Lamb, when describing a meeting between Charles Lamb and Clarkson, designates the latter ‘the true annihilator of the slave trade,’ and adds these words: ‘Lamb had no taste for oratorical philanthropy, but he felt the grandeur and simplicity of Clarkson's character.’ Stephen detected here an unjust reflection on Wilberforce, which he sought to confute with much energy, without in any way detracting from Clarkson's services to the cause with which the two men were identified. There is perhaps a slight touch of irony in Stephen's remark, ‘Thomas Clarkson is his own biographer,’ when alluding to Clarkson's ‘History’ of the movement. 8. The preface to ‘Zachary Clark's Account of the different Charities belonging to the Poor of the County of Norfolk, abridged from the returns, under Gilbert's Act, to the House of Commons in 1786; and from the Terriers in the office of the Lord Bishop of Norwich,’ Bury St. Edmunds and London, 1811, 8vo. 9. ‘Memoirs of the Private and Public Life of William Penn,’ London, 1813, 2 vols.; new ed., with a preface—in reply to the charges against his character made by Lord Macaulay in his ‘History of England’—by William Edward Forster, the well-known statesman [q. v.], London, 1849, 8vo. Clarkson's biography of Penn was the subject of an elaborate notice by Lord Jeffrey in the ‘Edinburgh Review’ for July 1813. Forster's defence of Clarkson's view of Penn's character, which forms the preface to the 1849 edition of Clarkson's ‘Life,’ was twice issued separately, in 1849 and 1850 respectively, under the title of ‘William Penn and Thomas Babington Macaulay.’ Macaulay in the last edition of his ‘History of England’ made an elaborate attempt to justify his original statement which he declined to retract. But there is no question that he was in error. See Mr. C. E. Doble's letter in ‘Academy,’ 1886, vol. i. p. 365. 10. ‘An Essay on the Doctrine and Practice of the Early Christians, as they relate to War,’ 2nd edition, London, 1817, 8vo. This was tract No. 3 of the Society for the Promotion of Permanent and Universal Peace, and passed through a number of editions. 11. ‘Thoughts on the Necessity of improving the Condition of the Slaves in the British Colonies, with a view to their ultimate Emancipation …,’ London, 1823, 8vo; 2nd ed., corrected, London, 1823, 8vo; another ed., London, 1823, 8vo, in the preface to which it is stated that it first appeared in the ‘Inquirer;’ 4th ed., corrected, London, 1824, 8vo. 12. ‘The Cries of Africa to the Inhabitants of Europe; or a Survey of that Bloody Commerce called the Slave Trade,’ London (1822?), 8vo. This was translated into French and Spanish. 13. ‘Researches Antediluvian, Patriarchal, and Historical, concerning the way in which Men first acquired their Knowledge of God and Religion,’ &c., London and Ipswich, 1836, 8vo. 14. ‘Strictures on a Life of William Wilberforce by the Rev. W. Wilberforce and the Rev. S. Wilberforce,’ London, 1838, 8vo. 15. ‘A Letter to the Clergy of various Denominations and to the Slaveholding Planters in the Southern Parts of the United States of America,’ London, 1841, 8vo. 16. ‘Not a Labourer wanted for Jamaica; to which is added an Account of the newly erected Villages by the Peasantry there and their beneficial Results,’ London, 1842, 8vo. 17. ‘Essay on Baptism, with some Remarks on the Doctrine of the Nicene Church, on which Puseyism is built,’ London and Ipswich, 1843, 8vo. 18. ‘Review of the Rev. Thomas B. Freeman's “Journal of Visits to Ashanti,” &c., with Remarks on the Present Situation of Africa and its Spiritual Prospects,’ London, 1845, 4to. 19. ‘The Grievances of our Mercantile Seamen, a National and Crying Evil,’ London and Ipswich, 1845, 12mo.

[Taylor's Biographical Sketch of Thomas Clarkson (1839) (a 2nd ed. of this sketch, edited by Dr. Henry Stebbing [q. v.], came out in 1847); A Sketch of the Life of Thomas Clarkson (1876); Elmes's Thomas Clarkson, a monograph (1854); Gent. Mag. 1846, new ser., xxvi. 542–6; Ann. Reg., 1846, App. to Chron. pp. 287–9; Daily News, 30 Sept. 1846; Clarkson's Hist. of the Abolition of the Slave Trade (1839); Hist. of Wisbeach (1833); Gardiner's Regs. of St. Paul's School (1884), pp. 161, 403, 416; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. xi. 46, 6th ser. xii. 228, 314; Brit. Mus. Cat.]

G. F. R. B.

END OF THE TENTH VOLUME.