[Willis's Cathedrals, i. 72; MSS. Tanner, No. 88, 170; Kennett, Lansdowne MS. 987, No. 126.]
Lords, 7 Dec. 1703, he was one of the majority, ranging himself with Tenison, Burnet, Lloyd of Worcester, &c., against Compton of London, Mews of Winchester, and Sprat. Gardiner's charge at his primary visitation (2nd edit. 1697) shows an earnest desire for raising the tone of his clergy and promoting the spiritual good of his diocese in what he terms an 'atheistical and deluded age.' Many of his clergy he describes as unaccountably negligent, some grossly immoral; they indulged in the immoderate pursuit of pluralities, and were hard to reconcile to residence, cheapening their curates and calling 20l. or 30l. a year a competency. Catechising was disused, the fasts and festivals were unobserved; private baptism was too usual; for the sake of fees clandestine marriages were winked at; chancels were disused and left 'in a more nasty condition than the meanest cottage,' while the holy table was brought down into the mid-aisle, and the elements administered to persons in their seats. His faithfulness in the discharge of his duties and the gentleness of his character are set forth in a very admirable set of six sapphic stanzas on his monument in the retrochoir of Lincoln Cathedral. He died at his house in Dean's Yard, Westminster, 1 March 1704-5, his end being hastened by grief at the sudden death of his wife under peculiarly painful circumstances. He left three sons, James [q. v.], William, and Charles, and two daughters. He was an antiquary of some note, and assisted Simon Patrick [q. v.], afterwards bishop of Ely, when dean of Peterborough, in deciphering and transcribing the charters and muniments of the abbey. Besides his charge of 1697, his only published work is a sermon preached before the House of Lords on Psalm lxxix. 9, on the fast day, 11 Dec. 1695. He also published twenty sermons left in manuscript by the learned Dr. W. Outram, prebendary of Westminster, of which a second edition was printed in 1797. A portrait of him exists at Emmanuel, and it has been engraved.
GARDINER, JAMES, the younger (d. 1732), sub-dean of Lincoln, son of James Gardiner, bishop of Lincoln [q. v.], entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in 1695. He proceeded B.A. as sixteenth wrangler in 1699, and was elected fellow of Jesus College in 1700. He became M.A. in 1702. On 20 April 1704 he was presented by his father to the mastership of St. John's Hospital, Peterborough, and 29 April of the same year was installed sub-dean of Lincoln Cathedral on the death of Dr. Knighton, and at the same time became prebendary of Asgarby. He is described by Browne Willis as 'an extraordinary benefactor to the church of Lincoln, having improved the house belonging to his dignity, rebuilt by his father, so very much that it may be esteemed the best house belonging to the minster' (Willis, Cathedrals, i. 99). He died at Lincoln, 24 March 1731-2, and was buried in the retrochoir of the cathedral, by the side of his father. His only daughter, Susanna, who had nursed him assiduously, followed him to the grave in little more than a month, 27 April, and was buried in the same grave in which his wife, Dinah, was also buried, 4 Sept. 1734. His monument bears a very lengthy epitaph, from which we may gather that he was a man of great suavity of disposition and beneficence, a cultured and popular preacher, and of some success as an author.
He published: 1. 'The Duty of Peace amongst Members of the same State. A Sermon on Rom. xiv. 19,' London, 1713. 2. 'Practical Exposition of the Beatitudes,' 1713 (this, as well as the sermon, went to a second edition). He also translated 'Rapin of Gardens,' 1718, and contributed to the 'Oxford and Cambridge Miscellany Poems,' Lintot, 1709.[Browne Willis's Cathedrals, i. 99; Le Neve's Fasti.]
GARDINER, JAMES (1688–1745), colonel of dragoons, eldest son of Captain Patrick Gardiner, of the family of Torwoodhead, by his wife, Mary Hodge of Gladsmuir, was born 11 Jan. 1687-8, at Carriden, Linlithgowshire. He was educated at the grammar school of Linlithgow, and having served very early as a cadet became ensign, at the age of fourteen, in a Scotch regiment in the service of Holland. In 1702 he exchanged into the service of Queen Anne, and he took part with distinction in the campaigns of Marlborough. At the battle of Ramillies, 23 May 1706, he was one of a forlorn hope sent to dispossess the French of the churchyard, and after planting the colours was disabled by a shot in the mouth. While lying helpless, after the battle, he saved himself from death by stating that he was a nephew of the governor of the neutral town of Huy. He was conveyed to a neighbouring convent, and on his recovery was exchanged. On 31 Jan. 1714-15 he was made lieutenant in Colonel Kerr's dragoons, now the 1st hussars; and on 22 July following captain in Colonel Stanhope's dragoons, disbanded in 1718. He was in this regiment at the battle of Preston, Lancashire, heading a small storming party, who in the midst of a hail of