Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 24.djvu/256

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Hammmond
Hammond
242


molestation, and that their confiscated estates should be restored to them. The commercial relations between the two countries were also much disturbed. Jefferson, who always spoke well of Hammond's action, resigned in 1793, and his successor, Edmund Randolph, continued the negotiations. Finally, after Washington had sent a special envoy (Jay) to London, a treaty settling the points in dispute was signed in 1794. With the French representative in America (Genet) Hammond had also much difficulty, and his honeymoon in 1793 was chiefly spent in endeavouring to obtain an assurance from the American government that their subjects should not sell arms to the French republic while at war with England. This assurance was refused, but Hammond conducted the negotiations throughout to the complete satisfaction of his government. He left America in 1795 to become under-secretary at the foreign office in London, and was thenceforward very intimate with his chief, Lord Grenville. Canning became Hammond's colleague at the foreign office in 1796, and the friendship formed between them only ended with Canning's death. As foreign under-secretary Hammond was entrusted with several important diplomatic missions to Berlin in 1796, to Vienna in 1799, and with Lord Harrowby, foreign secretary, to Berlin in 1805.

In 1797 Canning devised the tory 'Anti-Jacobin' as an antidote to the whig 'Rolliad.' Hammond was closely associated with the enterprise, and William Lamb (afterwards Lord Melbourne), in a poetical congratulatory epistle, published in the 'Morning Chronicle,' 17 Jan. 1798, represents Canning as joint-editor with Hammond. In 1809 Canning first suggested the 'Quarterly Review' at (it is said) a dinner given by Hammond at his house in Spring Gardens to John Murray, John Hookham Frere, and other writers in the 'Anti-Jacobin.'

When Fox became foreign minister in February 1806, Hammond retired from the under-secretaryship with a pension, but on the accession of Canning to the foreign office in the Duke of Portland's administration in March 1807, Hammond resumed his former post. The Walcheren disaster led to the resignation of the ministry in September 1809, and in the following month Hammond resigned, removing from London and settling at Donnington, Berkshire. In 1810 he received the honorary degree of D.C.L. at Oxford, while his friend, Lord Grenville, was chancellor of the university. From November 1815 to July 1828 he served (on the recommendation of Lord Castlereagh) with David Morier on the committee of arbitration, for securing to British subjects indemnity for loss of property during the French revolution. The duties required Hammond's frequent presence in Paris, where on 26 Aug. 1816 he gave a ball, which was attended by the Duke of Wellington and Sir Stratford Canning, then on his honeymoon. Hammond lived in retirement after 1828, and died at his residence, 22 Portland Place, London, on 23 April 1853, aged 90.

In 1793 Hammond married at Philadelphia Margaret, daughter of Andrew Allen, by whom he was father of Edmund, lord Hammond [q.v.]

Much of Hammond's voluminous correspondence with Jefferson is printed in 'Authentic Copies of the Correspondence of Thomas Jefferson, Esq., and George Hammond, Esq.,' London and Philadelphia, 1794, and in 'American State Papers Foreign Relations,' i. 188 sq.

[Information from H. E. Chetwynd Stapylton, esq. Cf. Narrative and Critical Hist, of America, ed. Justin Winsor, vii. 462 sq.; Parton's Life of Jefferson, Boston, 1874, pp. 414-15, 475, 478; Theodore Lyman's Diplomacy of the United States, Boston, 1828, i. 176 sq.; Interesting State Papers from President Washington, &c., likewise Conferences with George Hammond, Esq., quoted by Edmund Randolph, London and Philadelphia, 1796.]

S. L. L.

HAMMOND, HENRY (1605–1660), divine, born at Chertsey, 18 Aug. 1605, was youngest son of Dr. John Hammond [q. v.], physician. It is said that Henry, prince of Wales, was his godfather. He was educated at Eton, and was remarkable for the sweetness of his disposition, his devotional habits, and proficiency in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, At the age of thirteen he went to Magdalen College, Oxford, and his name appears in the demies' list in 1619. Here again he applied himself to deep study. On 11 Dec. 1622 he graduated B.A. (M.A. 30 June 1625, B.D. 28 Jan. 1634, and D.D. in March 1639), and in 1625 was elected a fellow of the college. Hammond was ordained in 1629, and for four years afterwards resided at Magdalen studying divinity. In 1633 he preached at court as a substitute for the president of Magdalen, Dr. Accepted Frewen [q. v.], afterwards archbishop of York. The Earl of Leicester, who heard him, was so well impressed that he gave him the living of Penshurst, Kent. Hammond resigned his fellowship, and zealously devoted himself to his parish. His mother kept house for him, and aided him in parochial work (cf. description of Penshurst in Fell's 'Life'). At Penshurst Hammond superintended the early education of his nephew William, afterwards the well-known Sir William Temple, whose