sion to his views in ‘Observations on Universal Pardon, the Extent of the Atonement, and Personal Assurance of Salvation.’ In 1842 appeared ‘Man's Responsibility; the Nature and Extent of the Atonement, and the Work of the Holy Spirit, in reply to Mr. Howard Hinton and the Baptist Midland Association.’ In 1843 he issued a tract on the Atonement, and in 1845 a work entitled ‘The Doctrine of the Atonement, with strictures on the recent Publications of Drs. Wardlaw and Jenkyn.’ A second edition of this appeared in 1847. Other works not of a controversial kind were: 1. ‘Journal of a Tour to the North,’ being an account of his first evangelistic journey. 2. ‘Early Instruction commended, in a Narrative of Catharine Haldane, with an Address to Parents on the importance of Religion.’ This was called forth by the death in 1801 of his little daughter at the age of six, and ran through eleven or twelve editions. 3. ‘Views of the Social Worship of the First Churches,’ published in 1805. 4. ‘The Doctrine and Duty of Self-Examination,’ being the substance of two sermons preached in 1806; he published another work on the same subject in 1830. 5. ‘An Exposition of the Epistle to the Galatians,’ published in 1848. For five years he conducted ‘The Scripture Magazine,’ in which many essays from his pen appeared, including ‘Notes on Scripture,’ and in addition to the works mentioned he was the author of many tracts. He died in Edinburgh on 8 Feb. 1851.
He was twice married, first in September 1793 to the only daughter of Major Alexander Joass of Culleonard, Banffshire; and secondly in 1822 to Margaret, daughter of Dr. Daniel Rutherford, professor of botany in the university of Edinburgh; his son, Daniel Rutherford, by his second wife, is separately noticed.[Alexander Haldane's Lives of Robert Haldane of Airthrey and of his brother, James Alexander Haldane, 1852.]
HALDANE, ROBERT (1764–1842), religious writer, eldest brother of James Alexander Haldane [q. v.], was born 28 Feb. 1764 in Queen Anne Street, Cavendish Square, London. Like his brother he was brought up under the care of his grandmother, Lady Lundie, and his uncles, and the two boys attended the grammar school of Dundee and the high school of Edinburgh together. After spending a very short time at Edinburgh University, early in 1780 he joined H.M.S. Monarch as midshipman under his uncle, Captain (afterwards Viscount) Duncan. Next year he was transferred to the Foudroyant, commanded by Captain Jervis, afterwards Earl St. Vincent, on board of which he saw some active service against the French. The peace of 1783 brought his naval career to a close. Meanwhile he had come under the influence of David Bogue of Gosport [q. v.] On leaving the navy he spent some time under Bogue's tuition, and then returned to Edinburgh University, where he remained for two sessions, following up his studies by making ‘the grand tour’ in the spring of 1785. In 1786 he settled down in his ancestral home at Airthrey, where for ten years he led a country life. The outbreak of the French revolution led him to take a keen interest in politics, but his mind became more and more engrossed with religion. In 1796 he formed a project for founding a mission in India, he himself to be one of the missionaries, and to supply all the necessary funds. He proposed to sell his estates, and to invest 25,000l. for the permanent support of the work. His friend Bogue agreed to accompany him to India, and a body of catechists and teachers and a printing-press were to be taken out. But the East India Company refused to permit the mission to be planted on any part of its territory, and the scheme was abandoned. He then turned his attention to the needs of Scotland. In 1798 he sold Airthrey, and began occasionally to preach. Leaving the church of Scotland in January 1799, and joining his brother in organising a congregational church in Edinburgh, he set about establishing tabernacles in the large centres of population, after the plan of Whitefield, he himself supplying the necessary funds. To provide pastors he founded seminaries for the training of students, whom he maintained at his own expense. It is said that in the twelve years 1798–1810 he had expended over 70,000l. on his schemes for the advancement of religion in Scotland.
About 1798 he entered into a plan for bringing twenty-four children from Africa to be educated and sent back again to teach their fellow-countrymen, and promised to bear the entire cost of their transport, support, and education, estimated at 7,000l. The children were brought over, but for some reason or other were not placed under Haldane's care, though he had arranged for their accommodation in Edinburgh. He was suspected by many for his supposed democratic tendencies, as well as his religious views. To vindicate himself he published in 1800 a pamphlet entitled ‘Addresses to the Public by Robert Haldane concerning his Political Opinions and Plans lately adopted to promote Religion in Scotland.’ In 1808 his adoption of baptist views and other circumstances created widespread discussion in the congre-