him the archdeaconry of Cardigan. In the course of that year he visited eighty parishes, preaching in each. He died on 1 Nov. 1860, aged 73. He was for many years the most popular preacher of the established church in Wales.
He published in Welsh, besides sermons, translations of Henry and Scott's 'Commentary,' as far as Deuteronomy, 1834, of Hall's 'Meditations,' and 'Y Nabl' (i.e. the Psaltery), a collection of Welsh psalms and hymns.
His English publications include, besides sermons:
- `The Domestic Ruler's Monitor,' 1821.
- `Pastoral Visitation,' 1822.
- `Esther and her People,'1832.
- `Ruth and her Kindred,' 1839.
- `The Self-Searcher.'
- `Psalms and Hymns for the use of the Church at Aberystwyth.'
- `The Heathen's Appeal.
A volume of sermons, with biography by his son, the Rev. R. Hughes, appeared at Liverpool in 1864.
[Foulkes's Geirlyfr Bywgraffiadol; biography by the Rev. R. Hughes, prefixed to sermons, 1864.]
HUGHES, JOHN (1796-1860), Calvinistic methodist, was born at Adwy'r Clawdd, near Wrexham, on 11 Feb. 1796. His parents were Hugh and Mary Hughes. His father was a carpenter, and he himself followed the same occupation till he was nineteen. When a lad of twelve he joined the Sunday-school which was then introduced into the neighbourhood, and made great progress. In 1810 he joined the Calvinistic methodist church at Adwy, and three years later began preaching. On 13 Sept. 1815 he opened a school at Cross Street, near Hope, Flintshire, but in August 1817 he went to school himself to learn Latin and Greek. After a time he opened a new school at Wrexham, and prepared many young men for the pulpit. He preached every Sunday. In February 1821 he was authorised as regular preacher to visit all parts of Wales, and in 1822 he preached before the Methodist Association. On 17 June 1829 he was ordained at Bala. In 1835, owing to bad health, he gave up his school, and became a flour merchant, in partnership with a brother. In 1838 he went to Liverpool, attained considerable eminence there as a preacher, and became co-pastor with Henry Rees [q. v.] of the Welsh Calvinistic churches of Liverpool. He died on a visit to Abergele 8 Aug. 1860. He was twice married.
Hughes's chief work is his 'History of Welsh Calvinistic Methodism,' in three large volumes (Wrexham, vol. i. 1851, vol. ii. 1854, vol. iii. 1856). A volume containing twenty-two sermons, together with a memoir by the Rev. R. Edwards and the Rev. John Hughes of Everton, and a portrait, appeared in 1862. Other works (all in Welsh, and nearly all published at Wrexham without date) are:
- 'Companion to Scripture.'
- 'Mirror of Prophecy' (reviewed in 'Drysorfa,' March 1849).
- 'The Scripture Test.'
- 'Catechism of Scripture History' (reviewed in 'Drysorfa,' January 1850).
- 'Protestantism in Germany,' London, 1847.
- 'An Essay on the Sabbath,' 1859.
He also translated several works for the Religious Tract Society.
[Foulkes's Geirlyfr Bywgraffiadol; Geiriadur Hughes; Memoir.]
HUGHES, JOHN CEIRIOG (1832-1887), Welsh poet, youngest child of Richard and Phœbe Hughes, was born in the old family homestead of Penbryn, Llanarmon-Dyffryn Ceiriog, Denbighshire, on 25 Sept. 1832. Ceiriog (as he was familiarly called) traced his pedigree to Bleddyn ab Cynvyn, prince of Gwynedd and Powys in 1072. After attending school at Nant-y-Glog, he took unwillingly to agricultural pursuits. He was always reading, and it soon became evident that farming was not his vocation. In 1848 he spent three months in a printer's office at Oswestry, and in 1849 obtained employment with a grocer at Manchester, but shortly afterwards became a clerk in a large place of business in London Road, Manchester, where he remained sixteen years. Leaving Manchester in 1865, Ceiriog was appointed stationmaster, first on the Cambrian railway at Llanidloes, then in 1870 at Towyn, in 1871 at Trefeglwys, and the same year at Caersws. He appeared in public for the last time at the Holborn Town Hall on 11 Nov. 1886 in connection with the London National Eisteddfod. He was then in bad health, and died on 23 April 1887, aged 54. His remains were interred in the parish churchyard of Llanwnog, two miles from Caersws, Montgomeryshire. On 22 Feb. 1861 he married Miss Roberts of the Lodge, Dyffryn Ceiriog, by whom he had four children, two sons and two daughters.
His first prize for poetry was won at a literary tournament in Grosvenor Square Chapel, Manchester. In 1853 he won a prize at Nantglyn, Denbighshire, for the best poem in memory of Dr. W. 0. Pughe. In the London Eisteddfod of 1856 he won a prize for the best six stanzas on the Rev. John Elias (1774-1841), and another for a poem in memory of the heir of Nanhoron. About the same time he published the 'Barddoniadur,' and its strictures on Caledfryn, the greatest Welsh critic of the day, attracted attention in Wales. In 1856-9 Ceiriog pub-