Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 39.djvu/346

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Murphy
Murphy
340

gal,' London, 1795, with portrait, after a painting by Sir Martin Archer Shee. A German translation by M. C. Sprengel was published at Halle in 1796 as vol. vi. of an 'Auswahl derbesten auslandischen . . . Nachrichten,' and a French translation by Lallemant (2 vols. 8vo, 1 vol. 4to) in Paris, in 1797. 3. 'General View of the State of Portugal,' London, 1798 (see Gent. Mag. 1798, pp. 960-3). 4. 'Arabian Antiquities of Spain,' London, 1813-16, embellished with 110 plates from drawings by Murphy (cf. T. F. Dibdin, Library Companion, p. 310). The work was edited and the descriptions written by T. Hartwell Horne. A 'History of the Mahometan Empire,' by John Shakespear, T. H. Horne, and John Gillies, and designed as an introduction to Murphy's book, was published in London in 1816. Murphy took out a patent in 1813 for a method of preserving timber and other substances from decay.

[Dict. of Architecture; Murphy's works; Manuscript Diary, 1790, in Libr. of B.I.B.A. (with sketches of building in Liverpool, Chester, Manchester, York, Cambridge, and Ely); Univ. Cat. of Books on Art; Keyser's Bücher-Lexicon; Cat. of Libr. of Sir John Soane's Museum; Admon. Act Book, November 1814 (in Somerset House); Annual Register (App. to Chronicle), 18U, p. 335.]

B. P.

MURPHY, JOHN (1753?–1798), Irish rebel, the son of a small farmer, was born at Tincurry, in the parish of Ferns, in co. Wexford, about 1753. After receiving some instruction at a neighbouring hedge-school he proceeded to Seville, where he completed his education. Having taken orders, and apparently graduated D.D., he returned to Ireland in 1785, and was appointed coadjutor, or assistant priest, of the parish of Boulavogue, in the diocese of Ferns. His simple piety and upright life soon obtained for him considerable influence in the district. In November 1797, when the government proclaimed a number of parishes in the county, he was one of the first to take the oath of allegiance, and when in April 1798 the whole county was proclaimed he was very active in inducing the catholic peasantry to surrender their arms. Whether his motives were, as Musgrave insinuates, insincere, or whether, as seems more likely, he was driven into rebellious courses by the outrages practised on himself and his parishioners by the military (Plowden, Historical Register, ii. 716; Byrne, Memoirs, i. 46), he was the first to raise the standard of revolt in the county of Wexford at Boulavogue on 26 May 1798. Having routed a small body of yeomanry that tried to withstand him, he proceeded to the hill of Oulart. The inhabitants, animated by his success, flocked to his standard, and on the following day he defeated and almost exterminated a picked body of the North Cork militia. He displayed considerable military ability, and having captured Camolin and Ferns, he marched directly on Enniscorthy. Here he met with a stubborn resistance, but, having taken the place on 28 May, he established a permanent camp on Vinegar Hill. His followers, the majority a mere rabble of half-starved peasants, of whom a great number were women, armed with whatever weapons they could procure, now amounted to several thousands, and it required all his influence to prevent them dispersing in order to plunder and murder those who were personally obnoxious to them. After some hesitation as to what course to pursue, Murphy's opinion carried the day, and that night the rebels under his leadership marched in the direction of Wexford, as far as a place called Three Rocks. The following day Wexford surrendered, and the rebels, having appointed Matthew Keugh [q. v.] governor of the town, retired. They then divided into three bodies, and with one of these Murphy directed his march towards Arklow. On 4 June he encountered Colonel Walpole in the neighbourhood of Ballymore Hill, and having defeated and slain that officer, he advanced as far as Gorey. Here he imprudently, as the event proved, lingered several days accumulating provisions, and it was not till 9 June that he advanced on Arklow. After a desperate attempt to capture the town he was repulsed with heavy loss by General Needham. Discouraged by his failure he appears to have divided his forces, and, while the larger division penetrated into Wicklow as far as Tinahely, he himself retreated with the other in the direction of Wexford. He took part in the battle of Vinegar Hill on 21 June, and, managing to escape to Wexford, he joined the main body of the rebels under Philip Roche [q. v.] at Three Rocks. He disapproved of Roche's plan of capitulation, and when the arrest of that general placed him at the head of the rebels, he resolved to make an effort to extend the rebellion into Carlow and Kilkenny. Accordingly, early on 22 June, he quitted Three Rocks, and, proceeding through Scollogh Gap, he made his way through Carlow towards Castlecomer, the centre of the coal district in the north of co. Kilkenny. Castlecomer was reached on 24 June, and a few miners were induced to join the rebels, but the inhabitants generally were apathetic, and, after plundering the town, Murphy and his followers, now greatly diminished in number, retraced their steps towards Wexford. At