Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 40.djvu/373

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Court (Kent, vi. 178, 606). It is not now to be found there. He contributed to the volume of verse on the deaths of Henry and Charles Brandon, dukes of Suffolk, published in 1552.

[Gloucester Visitation (Harl. MS. 1041, Harl. Soc.); Collinson's Somerset, iii. 588; Cooper's Athenæ Cant. (quotes Baker MSS. xxx. 218); Nichols's Progresses of Elizabeth, i. 165–74; Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, ii. 190–9; Le Neve's Fasti; State Papers, Dom. (1561), Addenda (December 1564); Lansdowne MS. 981, f. 122 (refers to catalogue of deans in Gale's Hist. ii. 115, and correcting Le Neve's date of the institution of Watson in the deanery of Winchester); Lamb's Letters and Documents, p. 176; Parker Corresp. (Parker Soc.), pp. 340–341; Bucer's Scripta Anglicana; Wilkins's Concilia; Cardwell's Doc. Annals.]

W. A. S.

NEWTON, FRANCIS MILNER (1720–1794), portrait-painter and royal academician, born in London in 1720, was son of Edward Newton by the elder daughter of Smart Goodenough of Barton Grange, Corfe, near Taunton, Somerset. Newton was a pupil of Marcus Tuscher, a German artist residing in England, and was also a student at the drawing academy in St. Martin's Lane. He was prominent among the artists who desired to establish a national academy of art, and who drew up in October 1753 an abortive prospectus of such a scheme. In 1755 a committee of artists was formed for a similar purpose, and Newton was appointed secretary, with no better success. A more successful meeting of artists was held at the Turk's Head tavern on 12 Nov. 1759, when Newton again acted as secretary. This resulted in the first exhibition held by the artists of Great Britain in the gallery of the Society of Arts, to which Newton contributed a portrait. In 1761 a schism took place among the artists exhibiting, and Newton joined the seceding body, who exhibited at Spring Gardens, and afterwards obtained a charter as ‘The Incorporated Society of Artists,’ in 1765, when Newton was again appointed secretary. In 1768 a further schism took place, which resulted in the ejectment of some of the directors and the secretary, Newton, from the Incorporated Society. The excluded artists formed themselves into a new society, and by obtaining the patronage of the king, George III, brought about the foundation of the Royal Academy of Arts in 1768, under the presidency of Sir Joshua Reynolds. Newton was elected the first secretary. He contributed portraits to the exhibitions of the Society of Artists and to the Royal Academy, but his works have little merit. When the Royal Academy was established in Somerset House, Newton was allotted rooms there, which he held until 1788, when he resigned the post of secretary, and was succeeded by Francis Inigo Richards [q. v.] A silver cup was presented by the council to Newton on his retirement, and his portrait is among those drawn by G. Dance (engraved by W. Daniell) and preserved in the library of the Royal Academy. Newton had a house at Hammersmith for some years. He was appointed by his cousin, Goodenough Earle, who had inherited the Barton Grange property, guardian to Earle's only daughter, with the reversion of the property. On the latter's death Newton inherited the property and retired to Barton Grange, where he resided for the rest of his life. He died there on 14 Aug. 1794, and was buried at Corfe. He left an only child, Josepha Sophia, who married first, Colonel Clifton Wheat (d. 1807) secondly, Sir Frederick Grey Cooper, bart. (d. 1840), and on her death, without issue, in 1848, bequeathed the Barton Grange property to a cousin, Francis Wheat Newton, esq.

[Redgrave's Dict. of Artists; Sandby's Hist. of the Royal Academy; Pye's Patronage of Art; Catalogues of the Royal Academy and the Society of Artists; information kindly supplied by Francis Wheat Newton, esq.]

L. C.

NEWTON, GEORGE (1602–1681), nonconformist divine, born in 1602, was a native of Devonshire, and was educated at Exeter College, Oxford, whence he matriculated 17 Dec. 1619, and proceeded B.A. 14 June 1621, and M.A. 23 June 1624 (Clarke, Reg. of Univ. of Oxford, pt. ii. p. 380, pt. iii. p. 392). He began his ministry at Bishop's Hull, near Taunton, Somerset, and was presented to the vicarage of St. Mary Magdalene, Taunton, 7 April 1631, by Sir William Portman and Mr. Robert Hill. When the ‘Declaration of Sports’ was issued by the council at the instance of Charles I in 1633, and ordered to be read in churches, Newton told his congregation that he read it as the commandment of man, and immediately thereafter he read the twentieth chapter of Exodus as the commandment of God, informing his hearers that these two commandments happened to be in contradiction to each other, but that they were at liberty to choose which they liked best. During the period 1642–5, that Taunton was being contested for by parliamentarians and royalists, with dubious and varying results, Newton spent some time in St. Albans, Hertfordshire, where he preached in the abbey church, but after the siege was finally raised by the parliamentarians he returned to his charge. In 1654 he was, by ordinance of Cromwell's