of the Charterhouse school. Thence, in 1798, he proceeded to Trinity College, Cambridge, whence, in 1800, he migrated to Sidney-Sussex. He graduated B.A. in 1802, and per literas regias M.A. in 1805, and B.D. in 1811. After obtaining a fellowship in 1804, he became chaplain to the British embassy at Constantinople. In 1806 he returned to England, and served as curate of Great St. Mary's, Cambridge. From January 1811 to 1814 he was chaplain to the factory at Smyrna. During his residence there he discovered on a rock near Nymphio a figure which he identified with the Sesostris of Herodotus. His priority of discovery was afterwards disputed, but it was finally vindicated by Dr. L. Schmitz in the ‘Classical Museum,’ No. 2, pp. 232–3. In 1815 he returned to Cambridge to fill the post of lord almoner's professor of Arabic, which he held till 1821. For a time he also acted as curate of Grantchester, near Cambridge, but in 1818 was presented to the valuable college living of Swanscombe, Kent. While at Smyrna in 1813 he baptised John William Burgon, with whom in after life he was very intimate. He looked over the manuscript of Burgon's prize essay on ‘The Life and Character of Sir Thomas Gresham,’ and publicly read the essay at the Mansion House, London, on 14 May 1836. Burgon corresponded with him, 1836–52, and dedicated to him his ‘Fifty Smaller Scriptural Cottage Prints’ in 1851. Renouard died unmarried at Swanscombe rectory on 15 Feb. 1867, and was buried in Swanscombe churchyard on 21 Feb.
Renouard was an admirable classical scholar, was acquainted with French, German, and Italian, and gained during his sojourn in the East an intimate knowledge of the Arabic, Turkish, and Hebrew languages. Although his publications were few, he obtained a wide reputation as a linguist, geographer, and botanist. During the forty-nine years that he resided at Swanscombe he maintained a voluminous correspondence with the most distinguished orientalists and geographers of Europe, and was an industrious contributor to the journals of learned societies. For the British and Foreign Bible Society he corrected the proofs of the translations of the scriptures into Turkish and other eastern languages. He was a leading member of the translation committee of the Royal Asiatic Society, to which he was elected in 1824, revising many of its publications. His paper on the language of the Berbers was communicated to the society in 1836 (Journal, 1836, iii. 131–160). From 1836 to 1846 he was honorary foreign secretary of the Royal Geographical Society, and actively interested himself in the Syro-Egyptian and Numismatic Societies. In the ‘Encyclopædia Metropolitana,’ third division, ‘History and Biography,’ he contributed to the ‘History of the Roman Republic,’ 1852, chapters vii., viii., and x., and to the ‘History of Greece, Macedonia, and Syria,’ 1852, chapter iii.[Gent. Mag. April 1867, pp. 535–7; Proceedings of Royal Geographical Society, 27 May 1867, p. 188; Goulburn's John William Burgon, 1892, i. 51–5, ii. 21, 423, 426.]
RENWICK, JAMES (1662–1688), Scottish covenanter, youngest child of Andrew Renwick (d. 1 Feb. 1676), a weaver, by his wife Elizabeth (Corson), was born near the village of Moniaive in the parish of Glencairn, Dumfriesshire, on 15 Feb. 1662. Several previous children had died in infancy; James received the careful training of an only child. He obtained a liberal education at the university of Edinburgh, supporting himself by tuition in families of good position, where he mixed in somewhat gay society. He qualified for his M.A. degree in 1681. It is said that he declined the oath of allegiance (referring possibly to the loyal clause in the ‘sponsio academica’), was refused public laureation, and laureated privately, with two others. This is not borne out by the university books, which mention ‘Jacobus Renwick’ among the publicly laureated who had signed the ‘sponsio.’ The ‘juramentum,’ to which he might have objected, was not introduced till 1683.
He witnessed the execution of Donald Cargill [q. v.] at the cross of Edinburgh on 27 July 1681, and the spectacle determined him to cast in his lot with the adherents to the Sanquhar declaration of 22 June 1680, popularly known as Cameronians, from Richard Cameron [q. v.] Accordingly, in October 1681, he organised a secret meeting of members of this party, probably a field-conventicle, and by his earnest zeal did much to rally them to renewed action. A correspondence was instituted between the ‘societies’ of sympathisers in various parts of the west of Scotland. Renwick, at Lanark, on 12 Jan. 1682, publicly proclaimed what was known as the Lanark declaration. He was not its author (it was written on 15 Dec. 1681), and admitted that some of its vehement language against the existing authorities (‘a brothel, rather than a court’) was ill-advised. Sir Alexander Gordon (1650–1726) [q. v.] of Earlston, who had been commissioned to Holland by the ‘societies’ in