Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 58.djvu/192

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of this Age, who endeavour by their detracting and derogatory Speeches to embezell the Glory of God and the Credit of their Neighbours' (London, 1611, 4to). What appear to have been 'remainders' of this work were reissued in 1630, but with the substituted title of 'The Arraignment of Slander, Periury, Blasphemy, and other Malicious Sinnes.'

Vaughan's attention was, however, soon directed to other matters of great public interest. In 1610 James I had granted to 'a company of adventurers,' consisting of the Earl of Northampton, Sir Francis Bacon, and forty-six other associates, considerable territory in Newfoundland for purposes of colonisation. In 1616 Vaughan purchased from the grantees a part of their land, and in the following year 'I transported thither,' he says, ' certayne colonies of men and women at my owne charge; after which, finding the burthen too heavy for my weake shoulders, I assigned the Northerly proportion of my grant unto . . . Viscount Falkland,' and a further portion somewhat later, probably in 1620, to Sir George Calvert (afterwards Lord Baltimore). In 1618 Vaughan sent out a second batch of settlers under the command of R. Whitbourne, whom he appointed governor for life of the undertaking (cf. Whitbourne, A Discourse and Discovery of Newfoundland, 1620; Oldmixon, Brit. Empire in America, 1741, i. 8).

In compliment to Wales, Vaughan had given his settlement the name of Cambriol, while its place-names included Vaughan's Cove, Golden Grove, and the names of all the counties of South Wales except Radnor (see Mason's Map), all of which have since disappeared. The settlement was situated on the south coast at the head of Trepassey Bay, and had been 'expressly planned on such a scale as to make agricultural pursuits and the fishing mutually depend on each other' (Bonnycastle).

Ill-health had prevented Vaughan from accompanying the earliest settlers, but he appears to have gone out himself after the return of Whitbourne in 1622. He had, however, returned to England by 1625, bringing with him two works ready for publication. One was a Latin poem, written under the pseudonym of 'Orpheus Junior,' in celebration of the marriage of Charles I, under the title of 'Cambrensium Caroleia ' (London, 1625, 8vo). This extremely rare book the only known copy being that at the British Museum also contains a map of Newfoundland by Captain John Mason (1586-1635) [q. v.]

To the other work, which was published in 1626, Vaughan gave the title of 'The Golden Fleece . . . transported from Cambrioll Colchios, By Orpheus Junior' (London, 4to). This has been described as 'a compound of truth and fiction, of quaint prose and quainter verse' (Rich, Cat. of Books relating principally to America, p. 45), and is written after a fantastic plan, also used by Boccalini, according to which a succession of historical characters present, in the court of Apollo, bills of complaint against the evils of the age, and finally the Golden Fleece, which is to restore all worldly happiness, is discovered in Newfoundland, of which country much detailed information is therefore given. This work ranks among the earliest contributions to English literature from America (see Encycl. Brit. 9th edit. i. 720, s.v. 'American Literature'). These works were chiefly intended to advertise the colony, or, as the author states elsewhere, 'to stirre up our Ilanders Mindes to assist and support the Newfound Ile.' His efforts were warmly appreciated by his fellow-adventurers, and Robert Hayman in his 'Quodlibets . . . from Newfoundland' (London, 1628) addressed two of his epigrams to Vaughan. Hayman himself is in turn addressed in verse by 'poore Cambriol's lord,' who, according to Wood (loc. cit.), must have been living out there at the time.

He was, however, again in England in 1630, settling his private affairs, which he would have 'chiefly to rely upon untill the Plantation be better strengthened.' His hopes for the future of the colony were doomed to disappointment, chiefly owing to its severe winters. He died at Torcoed in August 1641, and was buried in Llangyndeyrn churchyard, 'without vain pomp,' as enjoined in his will (which was dated 14 Aug., and was proved on 29 Aug. 1641).

Vaughan married, for his second wife, Anne, only child of John Christmas of Colchester. She died on 15 Aug. 1672, at the age of eighty-four, and was buried in St. Peter's Church, Carmarthenshire, close to the altar, where her monument and kneeling effigy are still to be seen (Spurrell, Carmarthen, pp. 187, 202). By her he had five daughters and one son, Edward, who was admitted a student of Gray's Inn on 19 March 1632-3, and was probably the person of that name knighted at Oxford on 24 Nov. 1643 (Metcalfe, Knights). He took a leading part in negotiating with General Laugharne the cessation of hostilities in Carmarthenshire on the submission of that county to parliament in October 1645 (Phillips, Civil War in Wales, ii. 274-278). He married Jemima, daughter of Nicholas Bacon of Shrubland Hall, near Ipswich.