Page:EB1911 - Volume 01.djvu/973

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920
ANATHEMA—ANATOMY

between the physical characters of anatase and rutile; the former is not quite so hard (H= 5 ½-6) or dense (sp. gr. = 3.9); it is optically negative, rutile being positive; and its lustre is even more strongly adamantine or metallic-adamantine than that of rutile.

1911 Britannica - Anatase.png

Two types or habits of anatase crystals may be distinguished. The commoner occurs as simple acute double pyramids {111} (fig. 1) with an indigo-blue to black colour and steely lustre. Crystals of this kind are abundant at Le Bourg d'Oisans in Dauphiné, where they are associated with rock-crystal, felspar and axinite in crevices in granite and mica-schist. Similar crystals, but of microscopic size, are widely distributed in sedimentary rocks, such as sandstones, clays and slates, from which they may be separated by washing away the lighter constituents of the powdered rock. Crystals of the second type have numerous pyramidal faces developed, and they are usually flatter or sometimes prismatic in habit (fig. 2); the colour is honey-yellow to brown. Such crystals closely resemble xenotime in appearance and, indeed, were for a long time supposed to belong to this species, the special name wiserine being applied to them. They occur attached to the walls of crevices in the gneisses of the Alps, the Binnenthal near Brieg in canton Valais, Switzerland, being a well-known locality.

When strongly heated, anatase is converted into rutile, changing in specific gravity to 4.1; naturally occurring pseudomorphs of rutile after anatase are also known. Crystals of anatase have been artificially prepared by several methods; for instance, by the interaction of steam and titanium chloride or fluoride.

Another name commonly in use for this mineral is octahedrite, a name which, indeed, is earlier than anatase, and given because of the common (acute) octahedral habit of the crystals. Other names, now obsolete, are oisanite and dauphinite, from the well-known French locality. (L. J. S.)

ANATHEMA (from Gr. άνατιθἐναι, to lift up), literally an offering, a thing set aside. The classical Greek form άνάθημα (Lat. anathēma) was the technical term for a gift (cf. donarium, oblatio) made to a god either in gratitude or with a view to propitiation. Thus at Athens the Thesmothetae (perhaps all the archons) made a vow that, should they break any law, they would dedicate a life-size gilt statue in the temple at Delphi. Similarly, of spoils taken in war, a part, generally a tenth, was dedicated to the god of the city (e.g. to Athena); to this class probably belong the trophies erected by the victors on the field of battle; sometimes a captured ship was placed upon a hill as an offering to Poseidon (Neptune). Persons who had recovered from an illness offered anathemata in the temples of Asclepius (Aesculapius); those who had escaped from shipwreck offered their clothes, or, if these had been lost, a lock of hair, to Neptune (Hor. Odes, i. 5. 13; Virg. Aeneid, xii. 768). The latter offering was very commonly made by young men and girls, especially young brides. Works of art of all kinds and the implements of a craftsman giving up his work were likewise dedicated. Such presents were far more common, as also more valuable, among the Greeks than among the Romans. Similar practices were prevalent, to an extent hardly realized, among the Christians up to the middle ages and even later. Just as the ancients hung their offerings on trees, temple columns and the images of the gods, so offerings were made to the Cross, to the Virgin Mary and on altars generally.

In the form anathĕma, the word is used in the Septuagint, the New Testament and ecclesiastical writers as the equivalent of the Hebrew ḥerem, which is commonly translated “accursed thing” (A.V.) or “devoted thing” (R.V.; cf. the Roman devotio). In Hebrew the root ḥ-r-m means to “set apart,” “devote to Yahweh,” for destruction; but in Arabic it means simply to separate or seclude (cf. “harem”). The idea of destruction or perdition is thus a secondary meaning of the word, which gradually lost its primary sense of consecration. In the New Testament, though it is used in the sense of “offering” (Luke xxi. 5), it generally signifies “separated” from the church, i.e. “accursed” (cf. Gal. i. 8 ff.; 1 Cor. xvi. 22), and it became the regular formula of excommunication from the time of the council of Chalcedon in 451, especially against heretics, e.g. in the canons of the council of Trent and those of the Vatican council of 1870. See Excommunication; Penance. The expression maranatha (“the Lord cometh”), which follows anathema in 1 Cor. xvi. 22, is often erroneously quoted as though it were an amplification of the curse.

ANATOLI, JACOB (c. 1194–1256), Hebrew translator from the Arabic. He was invited to Naples by the enlightened ruler Frederick II., and under this royal patronage and in association with Michael Scot, made Arabic learning accessible to Western readers. Among his most important services were translations of works by Averroes.

ANATOLIA (Gr. άνατολή, sunrise, i.e. eastern land), in ancient geography, the country east of the Aegean, i.e. Asia Minor. It was the name of one of the three themes (provinces) into which Phrygia was divided in the military reorganization of the East Roman empire. It is now used (by the Turks in the form (Anadŏli) to denote a division of the Turkish empire, practically coincident with Asia Minor (q.v.).

ANATOMY (Gr. ἁνατομή, from ἁνα-τέμνειν, to cut up), literally dissection or cutting asunder, a term always used to denote the study of the structure of living things; thus there is animal anatomy (zootomy) and vegetable anatomy (phytotomy). Animal anatomy may include the study of the structure of different animals, when it is called comparative anatomy or animal morphology, or it may be limited to one animal only, in which case it is spoken of as special anatomy. From a utilitarian point of view the study of Man is the most important division of special anatomy, and this human anatomy may be approached from different points of view. From that of the medical man it consists of a knowledge of the exact form, position, size and relationship of the various structures of the human body in health, and to this study the term descriptive or topographical human anatomy is given, though it is often, less happily, spoken of as Anthropotomy. An accurate knowledge of all the details of the human body takes years of patient observation to gain and is possessed by only a few. So intricate is man's body that only a small number of professional human anatomists are complete masters of all its details, and most of them specialize on certain parts, such as the brain, viscera, &c.; contenting themselves with a good working knowledge of the rest. Topographical anatomy must be learned by each person for himself by the repeated dissection and inspection of the dead human body. It is no more a science than a pilot's knowledge is, and, like that knowledge, must be exact and available in moments of emergency.

From the morphological point of view, however, human anatomy is a scientific and fascinating study, having for its object the discovery of the causes which have brought about the existing structure of Man, and needing a knowledge of the allied sciences of embryology or ontogeny, phylogeny and histology.

Pathological or morbid anatomy is the study of diseased organs, while sections of normal anatomy, applied to various purposes, receive special names such as medical, surgical, gynaecological, artistic and superficial anatomy. The comparison of the anatomy of different races of mankind is part of the science of physical anthropology or anthropological anatomy. In the present edition of this work the subject of anatomy is treated systematically rather than topographically. Each anatomical article contains first a description of the structures of an organ or system (such as nerves, arteries, heart, &c.), as it