Page:EB1911 - Volume 10.djvu/801

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search
This page needs to be proofread.

POPULATION] I FRANCE 779

combined with logical and organizing faculties of a high order, the heritage from the Latin domination, and with the industry, frugality and love of the soil natural in an agricultural people go to make up the national character. The Bretons, who most nearly represent the Celts, and the Basques, who inhabit parts of the western versant of the Pyrenees, have preserved their distinctive languages and customs, and are ethnically the most interesting sections of the nation; the Flemings of French Flanders where Flemish is still sp0ken.are also racially distinct. The immigration of Belgians into the northern departments and of Italians into those of the south-east exercise a constant modifying influence on the local populations.

During the 19th century the population of France increased to a less extent than that of any other country (except Ireland) for which definite data exist, and during the last twenty years of that period it was little more than stationary. The following censuses from 1876 to 1906.

Year Population
1876 36,905,788
1881 37,672,048
1886 38,218,903
1891 38,342,948
1896 38,517,975
1901 38,961,945
1906 39,252,245

Thus the rate of increase during the decade 1891- Allbe - 2,325 257,374 251,435 243,670 1901 was -16%, whereas during the same period the Qxgerén ' 214252 3921322 3§ 015E3 3081327 population of England increased 1-08%. The birth- BaS3;S A1péS 21298 494 ';5Ig"f4§ rate markedly decreased during the 10th century; Basses-Pyrériées . 2,977 432,999 4231572 426;8I7 despite an increase of population between 1801 and g@1f0l1;1, 130111110510 de 235 79,753 83,047 95,421 1901 amounting to 40%, the number of births in Cgafag; 11'R ne - 2,933 604,227 673, § 2g 765,913 the former was 904,000, as against 857,000 in the Cantal I I I 2123! 337,372;<;(g, t4)g; latter year, the diminution being accompanied by Charente 2,305 366,408 3561236 3511733 a decrease in the annual number of deaths.1 In Ch211'€11f0'111f@f1€Uf€ 2,791 462,303 453,455 453,793 the fouowiiig table the decrease in biahs and deaths 91161. ~~— 21819 3551349 3471725 343,484 f the decennial eriods durin the thirt ears (maze '- ' ' 2373 326494 322093 317'43° 01' P 8 1 Y Y Cprse (Corsica) 3,367 278,501 290,168 291,160 111111 €;2f, § ';;“, ;, '§ .", i., ,., ~ ia; 2211211 2621128 2111912 Births. ' ' 1 1 1 1° 4 11150

Creuse 2 164 284 942 279 366 2

3 as , . 1 1 1 74,094

iiéi 3,93 . 383,33 fi' 223 P", f°°° 3;;';<;, § ~;, ;f0 ~ giggg gggggg 34333; gggggg 1891 1900 beéthi5,3'°°0 1' 22'2 1' Boiibs . 2,030 3IOig6 'j 302:O46 298:438 - rome . 2, I, ,,

1871 1880 370,900 or 23-7 per 1000 Eu!-e: 2333 gsgxgég 123; 1333 ~ ~ 82512.22 ~ if; 1 %11zif'L°'f 1

mis ere . 2,713 707, 20 739,648 795,103

About two-thirds of the French departments, com- gif? ' ' ';12;g 3171093 2121032 4211123 prising a large 'proportion of those situated in Gimmje I 4740 8391332 gggzgzs mountainous districts and in the basin of the Garonne, Haute-Garonne . 2,458 481,169 459,377 442,065 where the birth-rate is especially feeble, show a H0Uf@'Lf'110 - 1,931 320,003 316,699 314,770 decrease in population. Those which show an in- § au€e'1'ATme ' 21413 247,781 232,057 221,724 crease usually possess large centres of industry and are Han es' *Des ' 237 122924 H2229 1077498 aute-Saone . 2,075 290,954 272,891 263,890

already thickly p0pulated, e g. Seine and Pas-de-Calais. Haute-Savoie ' 1,775 275,018 265,872 260,617 In most departments the principal cause of decrease HaUfeS$fY1011@'¢S - 1,750 234,325 213,973 209,397 of population is the attraction of great centres. The H?“te' 101111 ' 21144 3031182 3751724 3851732 d -t f 1 t~ - F ~ b t Hefavlt, ; - 2,403 439,044 469,684 482,799 average ensi y 0 popu a ion in rance is a on 190 me et V, |ame A 2,699 62,384 622,039 611,805 to the square mile, the tendency being for the large Indre . 2,666 296,147 289,206 290,216 towns to increase at the expense of the small towns 111f11e'01°L0l1'@ - 2,377 340,921 337,054 337,915 as well as the rural communities. In 1901 37 % of the 1731; ' ' ' fl? § 2§ 1?33 5021315 population lived in centres containing more than 2000 iandeé f 33215 3021226 292'8', '§ inhabitants, whereas in 1861 the proportion was 28 %. L0ir¢et-Cher 2,479 279,214 278;153 276:OI9 Besides the industrial districts the most thickly 110110 -, ; - 1,353 603,334 525,330 643,943 populated regions include the coast of the depart- kgggélnferleure ' 31224 6431384 64?'éZ2 6261748 ment of Seine-Inférieure and Brittany, the wine-gr0w- Lot 2101? 215403 ing region of the Bordelais and the Riviera.” Lotzet-Garonne 2,079 307,437 286;377 2741610 1 In 1907 deaths were superior in number to births by 1“°z?1e ' ' 1,999 141,264 132,151 123,016 nearly 20,00Q. M0100-ef-L0110 2,706 527,680 514,870 513,490 2 The following list comprises the three most densely- Manche ~ - - 2,475 520,805 500,052 4871443 populated and the three most sparsely populated depart- Mame ' 1 ~ 3,167 429,494 439,577 434,157 ments in France: MaY011110 ~ - ~ 2,012 340,003 321,187 305,457 Meurthe-et-Moselle. 2,038 431,693 466,41 7 517,508

Inhabitants to the Square Mile. Meuse . . . 2,409 291,971 290,384 280,220 seine 20,803 Basses-Alpes 42 M <2f1>111011 ~ - - 2,738 535,256 552,028 573,152 Nord . . 850 Hautes-Alpes . . 49 N1°V1e - 2,059 347,545 333,399 313,972 Rhone 778 1 <, ze, ¢ .... 64 N010 - 2-229 1,670,184 1-8111808 1,395,351