of the kind existed all over France. In Paris there were the Enfans sans Souci, the Basochiens, the Confrérie de la Passion and the Souverain Empire de Galilée; at Dijon there were the Mère Folle and her family; in Flanders the Société des Arbalétriers played comedies; at Rouen the Cornards or Conards yielded to none in vigour and fearlessness of satire. On Shrove Tuesday 1512 Gringoire, who was the accredited defender of the policy of Louis XII., and had already written many political poems, represented the Jeu du Prince des Sots et Mère Sotte. It was at the moment when the French dispute with Julius II. was at its height. Mère Sotte was disguised as the Church, and disputed the question of the temporal power with the prince. The political meaning was even more thinly veiled in the second part of the entertainment, a morality named L'Homme obstiné, the principal personage representing the pope. The performance concluded with a farce. Gringoire adopted for his device on the frontispiece of this trilogy, Tout par Raison, Raison par Tout, Par tout Raison. He has been called the Aristophane des Halles. In one respect at least he resembles Aristophanes. He is serious in his merriment; there is purpose behind his extravagances. The Church was further attacked in a poem printed about 1510, La Chasse du cerf des cerfs (serf des serfs, i.e. servus servorum), under which title that of the pope is thinly veiled. About 1514 he wrote his mystery of the Vie de Monseigneur Saint-Louis par personnages in nine books for the confrérie of the masons and carpenters. He became in 1518 herald at the court of Lorraine, with the title of Vaudemont, and married Catherine Roger, a lady of gentle birth. During the last twenty years of a long life he became orthodox, and dedicated a Blason des hérétiques to the duke of Lorraine. There is no record of the payment of his salary as a herald after Christmas 1538, so that he died probably in 1539.
His works were edited by C. d'Héricault and A. de Montaiglon for the Bibliothèque elzévirienne in 1858. This edition was incomplete, and was supplemented by a second volume in 1877 by Montaiglon and M. James de Rothschild. These volumes include the works already mentioned, except Le Chasteau de labour, and in addition, Les Folles Entreprises (1505), a collection of didactic and satirical poems, chiefly ballades and rondeaux, one section of which is devoted to the exposition of the tyranny of the nobles, and another to the vices of the clergy; L'Entreprise de Venise (c. 1509), a poem in seven-lined stanzas, giving a list of the Venetian fortresses which belonged, according to Gringoire, to other powers; L'Espoir de paix (1st ed. not dated; another, 1510), a verse treatise on the deeds of “certain popes of Rome,” dedicated to Louis XII.; and La Coqueluche (1510), a verse description of an epidemic, apparently influenza. For details of his other satires, Les Abus du monde (1509), Complainte de trop tard marié, Les Fantasies du monde qui regne; of his religious verse, Chants royaux (on the Passion, 1527), Heures de Notre Dame (1525); and a collection of tales in prose and verse, taken from the Gesta Romanorum, entitled Les Fantasies de Mère Sotte (1516), see G. Brunet, Manuel du libraire (s.v. Gringore). Most of Gringoire's works conclude with an acrostic giving the name of the author. The Chasteau de labour was translated into English by Alexander Barclay and printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1506. Barclay's translation was edited (1905) with his original for the Roxburghe Club by Mr A. W. Pollard, who provided an account of Gringoire, and a bibliography of the book. See also, for the Jeu du Prince des Sots, Petit de Julleville, La Comédie et les mœurs en France au moyen âge, pp. 151–168 (Paris, 1886); for Saint Louis, the same author's Les Mystères, i. 331 et seq., ii. 583–597 (1880), with further bibliographical references; and E. Picot, Gringore el les comédiens italiens (1877). The real Gringoire cannot be said to have many points of resemblance with the poet described in Victor Hugo's Notre-Dame de Paris, nor is there more foundation in fact for the one-act prose comedy of Theodore de Banville.
Grinnell, a city in Poweshiek county, Iowa, U.S.A., 55 m. E. by N. of Des Moines. Pop. (1900) 3860, of whom 274 were foreign-born; (1905) 4634; (1910) 5036. Grinnell is served by the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, and the Iowa Central railways. It is the seat of Iowa College (co-educational), founded in 1847 by the Iowa Band (Congregationalists and graduates of New England colleges and Andover Theological Seminary, who had devoted themselves to home missionary educational work in Iowa, and who came to Iowa in 1843), and by a few earlier pioneers from New England. The college opened in 1848 at Davenport, and in 1859 removed to Grinnell, where there was a school called Grinnell University, which it absorbed. Closely affiliated with the college are the Grinnell Academy and the Grinnell School of Music. In 1907–1908 the College had 463 students, the Academy had 129 students, and the School of Music had 141 students. Among the manufactures are carriages and gloves. The city was named in honour of one of its founders, Josiah Bushnell Grinnell (1821–1891), a Congregational clergyman, friend of and sympathizer with John Brown, and from 1863 to 1867 a member of the National House of Representatives. Grinnell was settled in 1854, was incorporated as a town in 1865, and in 1882 was chartered as a city of the second class. In 1882 it suffered severely from a cyclone.
Griqualand East and Griqualand West, territorial divisions of the Cape Province of the Union of South Africa. Griqualand East, which lies south of Basutoland and west of Natal, is so named from the settlement there in 1862 of Griquas under Adam Kok. It forms part of the Transkeian Territories of the Cape, and is described under Kaffraria. Griqualand West, formerly Griqualand simply, also named after its Griqua inhabitants, is part of the great tableland of South Africa. It is bounded S. by the Orange river, W. and N. by Bechuanaland, E. by the Transvaal and Orange Free State Province, and has an area of 15,197 sq. m. It has a general elevation of 3000 to 4000 ft. above the sea, low ranges of rocky hills, the Kaap, Asbestos, Vansittart and Langeberg mountains, traversing its western portion in a general N.E.-S.W. direction. The only perennial rivers are in the eastern district, through which the Vaal flows from a point a little above Fourteen Streams to its junction with the Orange (160 m.). In this part of its course the Vaal receives the Harts river from the north and the Riet from the east. The Riet, 4 m. within the Griqualand frontier, is joined by the Modder. The banks of the rivers are shaded by willows; elsewhere the only tree is the mimosa. The greater part of the country is barren, merging N.W. into absolute desert. The soil is, however, wherever irrigated, extremely fertile. The day climate is hot and dry, but the nights are frequently cold. Rain rarely falls, though thunderstorms of great severity occasionally sweep over the land, and sandstorms are prevalent in the summer. A portion of the country is adapted for sheep-farming and the growing of crops, horse-breeding is carried on at Kimberley, and asbestos is worked in the south-western districts, but the wealth of Griqualand West lies in its diamonds, which are found along the banks of the Vaal and in the district between that river and the Riet. From the first discovery of diamonds in 1867 up to the end of 1905 the total yield of diamonds was estimated at 13½ tons, worth £95,000,000.
The chief town is Kimberley (q.v.), the centre of the diamond mining industry. It is situated on the railway from Cape Town to the Zambezi, which crosses the country near its eastern border. Three miles south of Kimberley is Beaconsfield (q.v.). On the banks of the Vaal are Barkly West (q.v.), Windsorton (pop. 800) and Warrenton (pop. 1500); at all these places are river diggings, diamonds being found along the river from Fourteen Streams to the Harts confluence. Warrenton is 44 m. N. by rail from Kimberley. Douglas (pop. 300), on the south bank of the Vaal, 12 m. above its confluence with the Orange, is the centre of an agricultural district, a canal 9½ m. long serving to irrigate a considerable area. Thirty-five miles N.W. of Douglas is Griquatown (pop. 401), the headquarters of the first Griqua settlers. Campbell (pop. 250) is 30 m. E. of Griquatown, and Postmasburg 42 m. N. by W. A census taken in 1877 showed the population of Griqualand West to be 45,277, of whom 12,347 were Whites. At the census of 1891 the population was 83,215, of whom 29,602 were whites, and in 1904 the population was 108,498, of whom 32,570 were whites.
History. — Before the settlement in it of Griqua clans the district was thinly inhabited by Bushmen and Hottentots. At the end of the 18th century a horde known as Bastaards, descendants of Dutch farmers and Hottentot women, led a nomadic life on the plains south of the Orange river. In 1803 a missionary named Anderson induced a number of the Bastaards with their chief Barend Barends to settle north of the river, and a mission station was formed at a place where there was a strong