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so called from its pale skin, is excellent. Silver or Plata is a sweet, pale-coloured variety with a curious weal-like orange stripe, the fruit being rather small but heavy. Embiguo, or the Washington Navel Orange, produces splendid fruit under glass. The Jaffa, with large oblong fruits and large wavy crinkled leaves, although a shy bearer, makes up for this in the size of its fruits. The Maltese Blood Orange is remarkable for the blood-like stains in the pulp, although these are not present in every fruit even on the same tree.
Other kinds of oranges are the Tangerine with small aromatic fruits and willow-like leaves. The Seville orange is a handsome free-flowering tree, but its fruits are bitter and used only for preserving and marmalade.
Orangeburg, a city and the county-seat of Orangeburg county. South Carohna, U.S.A., on the North Edisto river, 50 m. S. by E. of Columbia. Pop. (1890) 2064; (1900) 4455, of whom 2518 were negroes. Orangeburg is served by the Atlantic Coast Line and the Southern railways. It is the seat of Claflin University for negroes, and of the State Colored Normal, Industrial, Agricultural and Mechanical College. Claflin University, incorporated in 1869, was named in honour of Lee Claflin (1791–1871) of Massachusetts, and is under the control of the Freedmen's Aid and Education Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church. In 1908 it had 25 instructors and 538 students (241 men and 297 women). The State Colored Normal, Industrial, Agricultural and Mechanical College was established here by the state in 1872 as the College of Agriculture and Mechanics' Institute (for negroes), on property immediately adjoining the campus of Claflin University, and the two schools were under one management (although otherwise distinct and separate) until 1896, when the present name of the state college was adopted. Among the city's manufactures are cotton-seed oil, cotton (yarn and cloth), lumber, bricks, concrete and turpentine. The municipality owns the water-works and the electric-lighting plant. A trader and trapper settled on the site of what is now Orangeburg in 1704. In 1735 a company of Germans and Swiss established the first real settlement and named it Orangeburg, in honour of the prince of Orange. Orangeburg was incorporated as a town in 1851, and was first chartered as a city in 1883.
Orange Free State, an inland province of British South Africa; formerly — from 1854 to 1900 — an independent republic. From May 1900 to June 1910 it was known as the Orange River Colony, since when under the style of Orange Free State it has formed a province of the Union of South Africa. It lies north of the Orange and south of the Vaal rivers, between 26° 30′ and 30° 40′ S. and 24° 20′ and 29° 40′ E., and has an area of 50,392 sq. m., being nearly the size of England. It is surrounded by other British possessions, being bounded N. by the Transvaal, E. by Natal, S.E. by Basutoland, S. and W. by the Cape province. Its greatest length is 356 m., its greatest breadth 304 m.
Physical Features. — The country forms part of the inner tableland of South Africa and has an elevation of between 4000 and 5000 ft. On the N.E. or Natal border the crest of the Drakensberg forms the frontier. The northern slopes of Mont aux Sources (11,000 ft.), the highest land in South Africa, are within the province, as are also the Draken's Berg (5682 ft.), the mountain from which the range takes its name, Melanies Kop (7500 ft.) and Platberg (about 8000 ft.), near Harrismith. Though rugged in places, with outlying spurs and secondary chains, the westward slopes of the Drakensberg are much gentler than the eastern or Natal versant of the chain. Several passes exist through the mountains, that of Van Reenen, 5500 ft., being traversed by a railway. From the mountainous eastern district the country dips gradually westward. No natural boundary marks the western frontier, a line across the veld (separating it from the Griqualand West district of the Cape) from the Orange to the Vaal rivers.
The aspect of the greater part of the country is that of vast undulating treeless plains, diversified by low rands and isolated tafelbergs and spitzkops, indicating the former level of the country. These hills are either of sandstone or ironstone and in altitude vary from about 4800 ft. to 5300 ft. Ironstone hills are numerous in the south-west districts. The whole country forms part of the drainage basin of the Orange river, it's streams, with insignificant exceptions, being tributaries of the Vaal or Caledon affluents of that river. The watershed between the Vaal and Caledon is formed by chains of hills, which, leaving the main range of the Drakensberg at Mont aux Sources, sweep in semicircles west and south. These hills are known as the Roodebergen, Wittebergen, Korannaberg, Viervoet, &c., and rise to nearly 7000 ft. The well-known Thaba Nchu (Black Mountain) is an isolated peak between this range and Bloemfontein. Three-fourths of the country lies north of these hills and is typical veld; the valley of the Caledon, sheltered eastward by the Maluti Mountains in Basutoland, is well watered and extremely fertile. The Caledon, from its source in Mont aux Sources to Jammerberg Drift near Wepener, forms the boundary of the province, the southern bank being in Basutoland; below Wepener the land on both sides of the Caledon is in the province. Here, between the Caledon and the Orange, is the fertile district of Rouxville. The north bank of the Orange, from the Kornet Spruit confluence to a point a little east of the spot where the railway from Cape Town to Kimberley crosses the river, forms the southern frontier of the province. The chief tributaries of the Vaal (q.v.) wholly or partly within the province are, going from east to west, the Klip (this stream from near its source to its confluence with the Vaal divides the Free State from the Transvaal), the Wilge, Rhenoster, Vet, Modder and Reit. The Sand river, on whose banks the convention recognizing the independence of the Transvaal Boers was signed in 1852, is a tributary of the Vet and passes through the centre of the country. All the affluents of the Vaal mentioned flow north or west. The Vaal itself for the greater part of its course forms the boundary between the province and the Transvaal. From the Klip river confluence it Mows west and south-west, entering Griqualand West above Kimberley. The river beds are generally 40 to 80 ft. below the level of the surrounding land. Most of the rivers have a considerable slope and none is navigable. Except the Caledon, Vaal and Orange, they are dry or nearly dry for three or four months in the year, but in the rainy season they are often raging torrents. The valleys of the Modder, Reit and the lower Caledon contain rich alluvial deposits. Besides the rivers water is obtained from numerous springs. A remarkable feature of the western plains is the large number of salt pans and salt springs grouped together in extensive areas, especially in the Boshof district.
Geology. — Except a small area around Vredefort in the north, the whole of the province is occupied by rocks of Karroo age. At Vredefort there is a granitic boss, belonging to the Swaziland series, regarded as being an intrusive in the overlying Witwatersrand series by G. A. F. Molengraaff, but to be of older date by F. A. Hatch. This boss is bounded, except on the south, by the Witwatersrand series, the lower portion of which consists of quartzites and slates and the upper portion of quartzites and conglomerates. At Hoopstad and at Stinkhoutboom the Witwatersrand series is unconformably overlain by 500 ft. of boulder beds and amygdaloidal lavas belonging to the Vaal River System. The Black Reef series of quartzites and conglomerates and dolomite form a narrow outcrop resting unconformably upon the last-mentioned system. Of the Karroo System all the groups from the basal Dwyka Conglomerate to the Cave Sandstone of the Stormberg series (see Cape Colony) are represented; but these rocks have not been so minutely subdivided as in the Cape. The Dwyka Conglomerate forms a narrow outcrop in the north-west, and is known from boreholes to extend over large areas beneath the Ecca Shales and to rest directly on rocks of older age. At Vierfontein a seam of coal is worked above it. The Ecca series extends over the major portion of the province. It consists mainly of sandstones, but these are often thin-bedded and pass into shales. Impressions of plants and silicified stems are frequently found. The Beaufort series occupies a portion of the area formerly regarded as being composed of the Stormberg beds. The prevailing rocks are sandstones, mudstones and shales. Reptilian remains abound; plants are also plentiful. The Stormberg series is confined to the north-east.
Climate. — Cut off from the warm, rain-bearing winds of the Indian Ocean by the Drakensberg, the country is swept by the winds from the dry desert regions to the west. It is also occasionally subject to hot, dry winds from the north. The westerly wind is almost constant and, in conjunction with the elevation of the land, greatly modifies the climatic conditions. The heat usual in subtropical countries is tempered by the cool breezes, and the atmosphere is dry and bracing. The climate indeed is noted for its healthiness, the chief drawback being dust-storms. The average temperature for the four winter months — May-August — is 49° F.; hard frosts at night are then common. For the other eight months the average temperature is 66°, December-February being the hottest months. The average daily range of the thermometer is from 25° to 30°,
- See for geology, A. H. Green, “A Contribution to the Geology and Physical Geography of the Cape Colony,” Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xliv., 1888; E. J. Dunn, Geological Sketch Map of S. Africa (Melbourne, 1887); D. Draper, “Notes on the Geology of South-Eastern Africa,” Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. 1., 1894; F. H. Hatch and C. S. Corstorphine, The Geology of South Africa (2nd ed. London, 1909).