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fragmentary MS. of the 11th century (the Epistula Sapphus, found in no early MS., is best preserved in a 13th-century Frankfort, and a 15th-century Harleian MS.); for the Amores, Ars amatoria, Remedia amoris, two Paris MSS. of the 9th and 10th century respectively; for the Medicamina formae a Florence MS. (Marcianus) of the 11th; for the Metamorphoses two Florence MSS. (Marcianus and Laurentianus) and a Naples MS., all of the 11th century; for the Fasti two Vatican MSS. of the 10th and 11th century; for the Tristia a Florence MS. of the 11th; for the Epistulae ex Ponto a fragmentary Wolfenbüttel MS. of the 6th and a Hamburg and two Munich MSS. of the 12th; for the Ibis a Trinity College, Cambridge, MS. of the 12th; for the Halieutica a Paris MS. of the 9th or 10th, and a Vienna MS. of the 9th century. Important for the text of the Heroides and Metamorphoses is the interesting paraphrase written in Greek by the monk Maximus Planudes in the latter half of the 13th century at Constantinople; that of the Heroides is printed in Palmer's edition of the Heroides (1898), that of the Metamorphoses in Lemaire's edition of Ovid, vol. v., edited by Boissonade. See also Gudeman, De Heroidum Ovidii codice Planudeo (Berlin, 1888).
Two independent editiones principles of Ovid were published contemporaneously in 1471, one at Rome, printed by Sweynheym and Pannartz, and one at Bologna by Balthasar Azoguidius: these present entirely different texts. See Owen's Trislium libri, v. p. Iv. ff. The following are the most important editions: those marked with an asterisk have explanatory notes. Of the whole works:
- Heinsius-Burmann (1727); *Amar-Lemaire (1820-1824); Merkel-Ehwald
(1874-1888); Riese (1871-1889); Postgate's Corpus poetarum Latinorum, by various editors (1894), reprinted separately (1898). Of separate works: Amores, *Nemethy (1907); Heroides, Sedlmayer (critical) (1886); *Palmer (1898); Epistula Sapphus (separately), *De Vries (1888); Ars amatoria, *P. Brandt (1902); Medicamina formae (critical), Kunz (1881); Metamorphoses, *J. C. Jahn (1821); *Loers (1843); Korn (critical) (1880); *Magnus (1885); *Haupt-Ehwald (1898-1903); Fasti, *Gierig (1812); Merkel (1841) (critical, with learned prolegomena on the sources, the Roman calendar, &c.); *Keightley (1848); *Paley (1854); *Peter (1889); Tristia, *Loers (1839); S. G. Owen (1889) (critical), *Bk. i. (1885), *Bk. iii. (1889); *Cocchia (1900); Epistulae ex Ponto, Korn (1868) (critical), Bk.i. Keene (1887); *Ellis (1881); Halieutica, *Birt, De Halieuticis Ovidio poetae falso adscriptis (1878). The following verse translations in English deserve mention: Amores, C. Marlowe (1600) (?); Heroides, Turbervile (1579); Saltonstall (1639); Sherburne (1639), various hands, preface by Dryden (3rd edition, 1683); Art of Love and Remedy of Love, Creed (1600); Dryden and others (1709); Metamorphoses, Golding (1567); Sandys (1626); Dryden and others (1717); King (1871); Fasti, Gower (1640); Rose (1866); Tristia, Saltonstall (1633); Catlin (1639); Churchyarde (1816); Epistles from Pontus, Saltonstal (1639); Jones (1658).
The special treatises on matters connected with Ovid are very numerous; a fairly complete list up to the time of publication is given in Owen's Tristia (critical edition), p. cviii. ff.; in Teuffel's History of Roman Literature (trans. by Warr) and in Schanz's Geschichte der romischen Litteratur; and in the excellent critical digests of recent literature by Ehwald in the Jahresbericht über die Fortschritte der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, xxxi. (1884) pp. 157 ff., lxxx. (1894) pp. 1, ff., cix. (1902) pp. 157 ff. The following deserve special mention. On the history of the text: Ehwald, Ad historiam carminum Ovidianorum symbolae (1889); Kritische Beiträge zu Ovids Epistulae ex Ponto (1896); Sedlmayer, Prolegomena ad Heroidas (1878); Gruppe, Minos, pp. 441 ff. (on interpolations). On style: Ovid's diction in connexion with other writers, — A. Zingerle, Ovidius und sein Verhältnis zu den Vorgängern (1869-1871); Martial's Ovid-Studien (1877); W. Zingerle, Untersuchungen zur Echtheitsfrage der Heroiden Ovids (1878); W. Vollgrafff, Nikander und Ovid (Groningen, 1909 foll.). Peculiarities of Ovid's style: van Iddekinge, De Ovidii Romani iuris peritia (1811); Washietl, De similitudinibus imaginibusque Ovidianis (1883); M'Crea, On Ovid's Use of Colour and Colour Terms (Classical studies in honour of H. Drisler) (1894). Metre: the structure of the Ovidian pentameter examined in relation to the textual criticism, — Hilberg, Gesetze der Wortstellung im Pentameter des Ovid (1894) (fully reviewed by Ellis, Classical Review, ix. 157). Literary appreciation: Sellar, Roman Poets of the Augustan Age; Lafaye, Les Metamorphoses d'Ovid et leurs modèles grecs. Ovid's relation to works of art: Wunderer, Ovids Werke in ihrem Verhältnis zur antiken Kunst (1890-1891); Engelmann, Bilder-Atlas zu Ovid's Metamorphosen (1890). Cause of exile: the most interesting discussion is by Boissier in his L'Opposition sous les Cesars. See also Nageotte, Ovide, sa vie, ses æuvres (1872); Huber, Die Ursachen der Verbannung des Ovid (1888). Influence of Ovid upon Shakespeare: T. S. Baynes, Shakespeare Studies (1894), pp. 195 ff.; Constable, Shakespeare's "Venus und Adonis" in Verhältnis zu Ovid's Metamorphosen (1890). (S. G. O.)
OVIEDO, a maritime province of northern Spain, bounded on the N. by the Bay of Biscay, E. by Santander, S. by Leon and W. by Lugo. Pop. (1900) 627,069; area, 4205 sq. m. In popular speech Oviedo is often called by its ancient name of Asturias, which only ceased to be the official title of the province in 1833, when the Spanish system of local government was reorganized. An account of the physical features, history and inhabitants of this region is given under Asturias (q.v.). Oviedo is rich in forests, coal, streams and waterfalls, which have largely contributed to its modern industrial development. The climate is generally mild, but overcharged with humidity, and in the higher regions the winters are protracted and severe. The broken character of the surface prevents anything like extensive agricultural industry, but abundant pasturage is found in the valleys. The wheat crop frequently fails. Rye succeeds better, and is often mixed with the maize which forms the principal food of all but the higher classes. Chestnuts - here, as elsewhere in Spain, an important article of diet - are very abundant on the hills, and the trees supply valuable timber. Apples are abundant, and cider forms the common drink of the people; but little attention is paid to vines. The horses of Oviedo rank among the best in Spain. Wild deer, boars and bears were formerly common among the mountains; and the sea-coasts, as well as the streams, abound with fish, including salmon and lampreys, which are sent to the markets of Madrid. Large quantities of sardines and tunny are also cured and exported. Although no trace exists of the gold for which Asturias was celebrated under its Roman rulers, Oviedo possesses valuable coal measures, which are worked at Langreo, Mieres, Santo Firme, Siero and elsewhere. More than 1,400,000 tons of coal were produced in 1903, besides a considerable amount of iron, mercury and cinnabar. The copper mines near Aviles and Cangas de Onis, and the copper works which long supplied the fairs of Leon and Castile with kettles, pots and similar utensils, have lost their importance; but lead, magnesia, arsenic, cobalt, lapis lazuli, alum, antimony, jet, marble and rock-crystal are found in various parts of the province, while amber and coral are gathered along the coast. There are manufactures of fine textiles, coarse cloth and ribbons in Salas, Piloña, Casas and Avilés; of paper in Pianton; of porcelain and glass in Gijon, Avilés and Pola de Surro; of arms in Oviedo and Trubia; while foundries and works for the manufacture of agricultural implements, rails and pig-iron are numerous. An important highway is the 16th-century Camino real, or royal road, leading from Gijón to Leon and Madrid, which cost so much that the emperor Charles V. inquired if it were paved with silver. A railway from Madrid to Oviedo, Gijón and Avilés runs through some of the most difficult parts of the Cantabrian chain. There are also several branch railways, including numerous narrow-gauge lines.
OVIEDO, an episcopal city and capital of the Spanish province of Oviedo; 16 m. S. of the Bay of Biscay, on the river Nalon, and on the Leon-Gijón, Oviedo-Trubia and Oviedo-Infiesto railways. Pop. (1900) 48,103. Oviedo is built on a hill rising from a broad and picturesque valley, which is bounded on the north-west by the Sierra de Naranco. The four main streets of Oviedo, which meet in a central square called the Plaza Mayor or Plaza de la Constitucion, are the roads connecting Gijón and Leon (north and south) and Santander and Grado (east and west). The streets are clean and well lighted; the projecting roofs of the houses give a characteristic effect, and some portions of the old Calle de la Plateria are highly picturesque. In the Plaza Mayor is the handsome Case Consistorial or town hall dating from 1662; the Jesuit church of San Isidro (1578), and some ancient palaces of the Asturian nobiUty are architecturally interesting. The university was founded by Philip III. in 1604; connected with it are a fine library and physical and chemical museums. The Gothic cathedral, founded in 1388, occupies the site of a chapel founded in the 8th century, of which only the Camara Santa remains. The west front has a fine portico of ornamented arches between the two towers. The interior contains some fine stained glass, but has been much disfigured with modern rococo additions. The Camara Santa (dating from 802) contains the famous arca of Oviedo, an 11th-century Byzantine chest of cedar, overlaid with silver reliefs of scenes in the lives of Christ, the Virgin and the apostles. In it are preserved some highly sacred relics, two crosses dating from the 8th and 9th centuries