Page:Federalist, Dawson edition, 1863.djvu/548

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404
The Fœderalist.

security provided for a gradual augmentation of the number of Representatives. The number which is to prevail in the first instance, is declared to be temporary. Its duration is limited to the short term of three years. Within every successive term of ten years, a census of inhabitants is to be repeated. The unequivocal objects of these regulations are, first, to readjust, from time to time, the apportionment of Representatives to the number of inhabitants; under the single exception, that each State shall have one Representative at least: Secondly, to augment the number of Representatives at the same periods; under the sole limitation, that the whole number shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand inhabitants. If we review the Constitutions of the several States, we shall find that some of them contain no determinate regulations on this subject; that others correspond pretty much on this point with the Fœderal Constitutions; and that the most effectual security in any of them is resolvable into a mere directory provision.

2. As far as experience has taken place on this subject, a gradual increase of Representatives under the State Constitutions has at least kept pace with that of the constituents; and it appears that the former have been as ready to concur in such measures as the latter have been to call for them.

3. There is a peculiarity in the Fœderal Constitution, which insures a watchful attention in a majority both of the People and of their Representatives, to a constitutional augmentation of the latter. The peculiarity lies in this, that one branch of the Legislature is a representation of citizens; the other of the States: in the former, consequently, the larger States will have most weight; in the latter, the advantage will be in favor of the smaller States. From this circumstance it may with certainty be inferred, that the larger States will be strenuous ad-