Page:History of Freedom.djvu/672

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628

ESSAYS ON LIBERTY

veneration of, spell broken by pro- testing bishops, 531 Planck, :Möhler's address to, 378 Plantagenet, house of, claims backed by Rome against house of Bruce, 35 Plantier, authority on Louis Philippe, 4 02 Platen, diaries of, description of Döl- linger's early studies in, 375 Plato, Laws, 22 on class interests, 69, 71. opinions of, 71 not without perverted notions of morality, 18 Reþublic of, 270 Plebeians, Roman, struggle with aris- tocracy! 13, 14 Plotinus, ideal society of, 270 Plutarch, religious knowledge of, 406 Poland, 105; Anjou as candidate for throne of, 105; prospects of, after the Massacre of 8t, Bar- tholomew, 144 an exception to common law of dynastic States, 274; and why, 275; the consequence, the par- tition, 275 extinction of, 283 government of, and the Reformation, 43 partition of, awakening theory of nationality in Europe, 275 religious toleration in sixteenth cen- tury, 103 republic of, nature, 49 Socinians in, Beza's hostility to, 146 wrath in, at the Huguenot massacres, 120 Pole, Cardinal, II Principe brought to notice of, 214 cited on political scruples, 219 Polish exiles, why always champions of national movements, 286 Protestants, strength and unity of, 10 3 revolution, causes united in, 284 Political corruption, Hamilton's paradox on, 581 disorders, distribution supersedes con- centration of power as remedy against, under Solon, 7 equality at Athens, 68 forms, confusion with popular rights, 23 8 freedom inherently absent in France, 237-4 0 habits and ideas special to particular nations, varying in the national history. 297

intelligence, not culture, the test of a conquering race, 242 liberty in modern times the fruit of self-government, 253 life a sign of true patriotism, 293 opposition to Vatican Council, absence of, 51 I power should be in proportion to public service, 8 observance of this principle at Athens, 8 principles, obligation of, essentials for understanding, 458 science, America's rank in, its ex- ponents, 578 theory of nationality in contradiction with the historic notion, 243 thoughts on the Church, 188 Politics, attitude to, of the best Americans, 578 conscience in, expedient elasticity of, 212- 1 4 contemporary, Döllinger's part in, 4 00 -4 0 3 honesty in, approved by great mep-. 219-23; not always expedient, 219 - 21 ; opinions of Pope Clement, 214; Machiavelli, 212; Michelet, 213; Molino, 213; Sarpi, 213; Soto, 213 laws of, rest on experience, 391 liberty highest end of, 22, 23, 24 Machiavellian, tribute to, 219 principles of, high teaching regarding, in Plato's Laws and Aristotle's Politics, 22 retribution in, 220-23 science of, impartial study, unknown in seventeenth century, 45-46; impartial study originated by Grotius, 46 Politics and science, authority of, now re-established, extent of, 453; discoveries and principles of, how generally judged, 454 Polygamy, attitude of reformers to, 159, 160 Pontiac, price on head of, 213 Pope, the, and the court, Lamennais's distinction between, 464-5 intervention of, between state and sovereign, 257 Popes, the (Medicean), unofficial countenance of Machiavelli, 214 Popular rights, confusion of political forms with, 238 Population, masses of, not benefited by liberty of suhject, 94 relief of, aim of modern democracy, 95