trains, protected emigrants, guarded lines of travel and telegraph and had frequent engagements with hostile bands of Indians.
Portions of the regiment were engaged in many battles including White Stone Hill, Little Blue, Julesburg, Rush Creek, Mud Springs, Horse Creek, in some of which losses were sustained. They did good service over a wide range of country in Nebraska, Kansas, Dakota and Colorado under Generals McKean, Mitchell, Curtis and Heath. Their greatest loss was at Julesburg on the 7th of January, 1865, where Captain O’Brien with Company F was escorting a train. The Indians in large numbers made an attack upon the train which was kept up during the entire day. Colonel Summers was with the company and directed the fight. At one time he was besieged on a ranch while Captain O’Brien brought up artillery and opened upon the Indians, who were finally driven off with heavy loss. Colonel Summers shot one of the chiefs with his revolver and fifty-five warriors were killed during the fight. Captain William D. Fouts and twelve men were killed during the year in other engagements. Colonel Summers was mustered out of the service on the 31st of January, 1865. Health was, in the following May, promoted to colonel and soon after was brevetted Brigadier-General. He was placed in command of a sub-district with headquarters at Fort Kearney and subdued the hostile Indians in that region who had long harassed the settlers and emigrants. Major O’Brien also became colonel of the regiment and was a brevet Brigadier-General. The regiment was finally mustered out of service at Leavenworth, Kansas, on the 17th of May, 1866.
Early in the year 1863 Lieutenant Joseph Dorr of the Twelfth Infantry received authority from the Secretary of War to raise a regiment of cavalry in the State