son, he stolidly refrains from applying his reason to the discovery of the historical laws that govern his animal nature.
Excepting the philosophical doctrines of the pseudo-Christian world, all the philosophical and religious doctrines of which we have knowledge Judaism, the doctrine of Confucius, Buddhism, Brahmanism, the wisdom of the Greeks all aim to regulate human life, and to enlighten men with regard to what they must do to improve their condi tion. The doctrine of Confucius teaches _tke_ per fecting of the individual; Judaism, personal fidelity to JUL-alliaiicejvith God; I^dhlsfflUlQBLto. Sf -ape from a Ijfe overned" 1 by animal instincts;,jjocratcs taught the perfecting of the individual through rea son; the Stoics "recognized the independence of reason .as. the sole basis of the true life.
The reasonable activity of man has always been it could not be otherwise to light by the torch of reason his progress toward beatitude. Philoso phy tells us that free-will is an illusion, and then boasts of the boldness of such a declaration. Free will is not only an illusion; it is an empty word invented by theologians and experts in criminal law; to refute it would be to undertake a battle with a wind-mill. But reason, which illuminates our life and impels us to modify our actions, is not ail illu sion, and its authority can never be denied. To obey reason in the pursuit of good is the substance of the teachings of all the masters of humanity, and it is the substance of the doctrine of Jesus; it is