Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 16.djvu/366

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346
THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

moreover, take photographs of Venus. Jupiter, Mars, and Saturn, showing much detail, and capable of being enlarged to half an inch in diameter. These planetary photographs will be of great use, as recording in unmistakable characters the true position and aspect of these planets and their satellites at different known epochs.

The foregoing sketch will show that in constructing this new instrument Mr. Common has contributed in a most important degree to the advancement of astronomy.—Popular Science Review.

 
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THE MORAL SENSE IN THE LOWER ANIMALS.[1]
By W. LAUDER LINDSAY, F. R. S. E.

ALL the ordinary definitions of what is variously called in man the moral sense—sentiment, feeling, faculty, or instinct—apply, though not necessarily equally, in the same degree, with quite the same sense or force, to an equivalent mental attribute or series of psychical qualities in other animals, and which attribute or qualities in other animals there is no good reason for distinguishing by any other name, simply because they are to be found in animals zoölogically lower than man.

Thus the moral sense in man has been defined by different classes of authors to be, or to include—

1. A knowledge, appreciation, or sense of—
a. Right and wrong.
b. Good and evil.
c. Justice and injustice.

2. Conscience, involving feelings of approbation or the reverse in relation to ideas of right and wrong.

3. The approval of what is conducive to well-being, and the disapproval of the reverse.

4. Sense of duty and of moral obligation.

5. Appreciation of the results of honesty and dishonesty.

6. Virtue or virtuousness, including especially such moral virtues as conscientiousness, scrupulousness, integrity, compassion, benevolence, fidelity, charity, mercy, magnanimity, disinterestedness, chastity, modesty.

There is not one of these moral qualities that is not possessed, sometimes in a high degree, by certain of the lower animals, and more especially the dog; and there are many authors, who have been desirous of drawing marked psychical distinctions between man and other animals, who have nevertheless felt themselves compelled by the evi-

  1. From advance sheets of "Mind in the Lower Animals." By W. Lauder Lindsay, M.D., F.R.S.E., etc. 2 vols. In press of D. Appleton & Co.