��THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.
��eluded fifty-eight local unions or groups, and about twenty-three hundred members.
Development of the Mammalian Foot.
Professor E. D. Cope has suggested as a result of his studies of the feet of the mam- malia, that the reduction in the number of toes in the ungulates " is due to the elonga- tion of those which slightly exceeded the others in length, in consequence of the greater number of strains and impacts re- ceived by them in rapid progression, and the complementary loss of material avail- able for the growth of the smaller ones. This is rendered probable from the fact that the types with reduced digits are dwellers on dry land in both orders, and those that have more numerous digits are inhabitants of swamps and mud." The cloven-footed ani- mals were mud-dwellers, as a few of them still are, and larger than the whole-footed ungulates; and "the mechanical effect of walking in the mud is to spread the toes equally on opposite sides of the middle line. This would encourage the equal develop- ment of the digits on each side of the mid- dle line, as in the cloven-footed types." On the other hand, in progression on hard ground, the longest toe (the third) will re- ceive the greatest amount of shock from contact with the earth, and there is every reason to believe that shocks, if not exces- sive, encourage growth in the direction of the force applied. The hinge between the first and second series of tarsal bones in cloven feet is also supposed to be the re- sult of strains endured in walking in mud. The variations in the degree of development of the trochlea, or the prominences forming the tongues of the tongue-and-groove artic- ulations, in different mammalia, also^ seem to be dependent on the amount and kind of strain to which the limbs are subjected.
The Archaeological Congress at Tiflis.
A very interesting Archaeological Congress was recently held at Tiflis, which was at- tended by about eight hundred persons, nearly all from Russia and the Caucasus. Prof essor Virchow was the most conspicuous foreign delegate. Collections of stone and bronze antiquities and Georgian ornaments were exhibited from Russia, Kuban, and Os- setia, where great numbers of bronze imple- ments, carved hatchets with spiral, zigzag,
��and animal ornaments, and religious objects belon'dn"' to some unknown worship, have been found in recent years. Count Ouvaroff made a communication on remains of the stone period human skeletons, with stone and bone implements, perforated teeth of ani- mals, and as many as two hundred jade (ne- phrite) hatchets, the first jade implements observed in graves in Russia, which had been found on the bank of the Angara River, near Irkutsk. In the discussion concerning jade that followed the reading of this paper, M. Mousbketoff described the great mono- lith of jade over the grave of Tamerlane at Samarcand, which is IS feet long, 15 foot wide, 1-2 foot high, and weighs about eighteen hundred pounds, or more than twice as much as the largest pieces of ne- phrite that have been found in bowlders. Professor Samokoff gave an account of his finds in the graves near Pyatigorsk, in the Caucasus. He excavated about two hun- dred graves belonging to the stone, bronze, and iron periods, and found in the larger graves bronze and stone implements, bones of sheep, and several split human bones that did not belong to skeletons. His con- clusion that the Caucasians of the bronze age were anthropophagists was not con- curred in by the majority of the Congress. Professor Virchow gave a lecture on the chief problems of the ethnology and archae- ology of the Caucasus. On the current opinion that the Caucasus was the highway for populations coming from Asia to Eu- rope, he expressed some doubts whether the Caucasian passes could have been crossed by whole tribes at a time when communica- tions were so difficult, and the ice-cover- ing descended lower than now. It would bemost important, therefore, to ascertain whether the first inhabitants of the Cau- casus came from the north or from the south. He considered that the civiliza- tion which the antiquities found in Ossetia represent was far more recent than that dis- covered by Dr. Schliemann at Troy.
��Acoustics in Arcliitectnre. Mr. A. F. Oakey, the architect of the Cincinnati Music Hall, gives some valuable suggestions on " Acoustics in Architecture " in " Van Xos- trand's Engineering Magazine." The most essential requisite to a good music hall or