Turner, J. B., Jacksonville, 111. Differentiation of Energy as the Basis of Philosophy and Religion. Christ and Creeds. Christ and Creeds contrasted. Pp. about 50.
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Byeily, W. E. Chauvenet’s Treatise on Elementary Geometry, revised and abridged. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company. Pp. 322. $1.20.
Haddon, Alfred C. An Introduction to the Study of Embryology. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston, Son & Co. Pp. 336.
Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol. IX, 1886. Washington. Government Printing-office. Pp. 714, with Twenty-five Plates.
Powell. J. M., Director. Sixth Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey, 1884-'85 Washington: Government Printing-Office Pp. 570.
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Finck, Henry T. Romantic Love and Personal Beauty. London and New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 660. $2.
Paz, Dr. Campos da A Questão dos Vinhos (on the Question of Wines). Rio de Janeiro. Pp. 384.
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Nelson, Dr. Wolfred, of Montreal. Aperçu de quelques Difficultés a vaincre dans la Construction du Canal de Panama (Summary of some of the Difficulties to be overcome in the Construction of the Panama Canal). Paris, France: T. Symonds, 90 Rue Rochechouart. Pp. 71.
Economy of Food. — In his American Association paper on "Economy of Food," Professor L. O. Atwater laid down the principle that "the cheapest food is that which furnishes the actually nutritive materials at least cost." The nutriments of vegetable food are, he said, in general much less costly than the animal foods. The animal foods have, however, the advantages of containing larger proportions of protein and of fats, and the protein at least in more digestible forms. Flour, meal, and other staple vegetable foods, furnish the nutriments at only a fraction of their cost in ordinary animal foods. At market prices, current in the Eastern States, the cost of the protein ranges at from eight to thirty-four cents a pound in the staple vegetable foods, and from eighteen cents to somewhat over one dollar a pound in the staple animal foods. In oysters it ranges at from two to three dollars a pound, in salmon sometimes to five dollars a pound, in beef at from ten to twenty-five cents a pound from about forty cents to one dollar and ten cents. In many of the usual food-fishes the nutritive material is dearer than in beef. The less expensive kinds of meat contain as much nutriment as the costlier kind; and the different grades of flour have a much more nearly equal nutritive value than is commonly supposed. Among the vegetable foods, wheat-flour, corn-meal, and other cereal products are in general the cheapest and most economical. Wheat flour at six dollars a barrel and potatoes at forty cents a bushel would furnish nutritive material at about the same cost. The prices of the choicer food-materials are regulated by flavor as well as by the amount of nutritive material, which in some is hardly a fraction of the price. With exceptions that are easily explained, the prices of foods that are bought and used for their nutriment tend to shape themselves proportionately according to the actual values. Taking the world through, the mass of people select those foods which furnish the actual nutrients at the lowest cost; but there are marked exceptions in the United States, where many, even among those who desire to economize, use needlessly expensive kinds of food. "They too often endeavor to make their diet attractive by paying high prices in the market rather than by skillful cooking and tasteful serving at home." Wastefulness of food shows itself in the purchasing of more than is needed; in using part of the excess to overload the alimentary organs and throwing the rest away; in purchasing food that seems cheap but is really dear; in using costly materials where less expensive ones would serve as well; and in the false economy of using too little of one material and too much of another. Great evils accrue from these practices, in the loss of money and the deterioration of health; and "some of the wisest students of physiology and hygiene are persuaded that improper eating, and especially overeating, is a source of more disease than any other one thing."