than that of the five Laurentian lakes combined. Prof. Uphara having studied the remains of this lake as defined by its ancient beaches in the United States, obtained authority from the Canadian survey to carry on his investigations in the British territory, and his paper of one hundred and fifty-six pages furnishes the evidence that he did so very carefully. The paper is illustrated by a map of the country of Lake Agassiz, showing its position and probable extent and its relation to the Upper Laurentian lakes, and by a map of its beaches and deltas in southern Manitoba. Many artesian wells have been obtained in the plain which occupies the site of the valley of the ancient lake, and the description of these furnishes the substance of a paper on Artesian Wells in North and South Dakota. Prof. Upham is not confident that the wells can be made efficient in these regions for irrigation. A well flowing one hundred gallons a minute would be needed to irrigate a quarter section, or one hundred and sixty acres of land — the usual area of a homestead. Such a well would cost seven thousand dollars, and to this the outlay for reservoirs and conduits would have to be added. A Discussion of the Climatic Conditions of the Glacial Period was participated in, in the Boston Society of Natural History, by Frank Leverett, Prof. Shaler, and Prof. W. 0. Crosby, with Prof. Upham. Prof. Upham thought the conditions most favorable to the formation of the ice-sheets were long-continued rather than excessive cold, with an abundant supply of moisture by storms, and cooler summers than now. In a fifth paper the Fiords and Great Lake Basins of North America are considered as evidence of pre-glacial continental elevation and of depression during the Glacial period.
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