an ethnic result mediocrity of type. The individuality of the single man is merged in that of the social group. In fine, contrast of race is swallowed up in nationality. This process has as yet only begun in western Europe. In the so-called upper classes it has proceeded far, as we shall see. We shall, in due course of time, have to trace social forces now at work which insure its further prosecution not only among the leaders of the people, but among the masses as well. The process will be completed in that far-distant day when the conception of common humanity shall replace the narrower one of nationality; then there will be perhaps not two varieties of head form in Europe, but a great common mean covering the whole continent. The turning of swords into plowshares will contribute greatly to this end. Modern industrial life with its incident migrations of population does more to upset racial purity than a hundred military campaigns or conquests. Did it not at the same time invoke commercial rivalries and build up national barriers against intercourse, we might hope to see this amalgamation completed in a conceivable time.
THE following is Dr. J. S. Billings's statement on behalf of the committee: "This paper contains an account of some research work which has been done for the Committee of Fifty for the Investigation of the Liquor Problem, and it is to be regarded as merely a preliminary report to be considered in the final conclusions which may be reached in the future by the Committee of Fifty itself."
On my own part I desire to express to the Committee of Fifty my deep sense of appreciation for the support which has made the following researches possible. To the members of the Subcommittee on Physiology, Drs. Bowditch, Billings, Chittenden, and Welch, my especial thanks are due for hearty and sustained interest and prompt assistance at every turn of the investigation. Under their stimulus and guidance it has been throughout the keenest pleasure to work, even upon a problem so beset with prejudices that the slightest contamination of the atmosphere of pure science, in which such work, if ever effectual, must be done, would have rendered even the will to undertake it impossible.