��POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.
��Great Britain, but for the benefit of rapacious politicians and traders and manufacturers in Spain. In the co- lonial administration the former sought easy employment and speedy fortune. In the colonial commercial regulations the latter found an arti- ficial support for trade and manu- factures that could not have survived without them. By discriminations, Spanish millers, for instance, were able to import wheat, turn it into flour, and sell it to the colonists at a price scandalously in excess of that charged for the American product. Sometimes the trouble to grind the wheat was not taken. After it had been imported into Spain it was shipped to the colonies, and upon them was thrown the expense of needless transportation and the prof- its of superfluous middlemen.
With the complete extinction of the colonial empire of Spain will come to an end these opportunities for the pillage of industrious peoples. The parasites, commercial and bu- reaucratic, that have depended upon them for a livelihood will be obliged to turn their attention to more le- gitimate employment. There will be brought to an end also the im- mense sacrifice of life and treasure required to suppress the ever-recur- ring insurrections. Both will be left in Spain to develop her resources and to add to her wealth and pros- perity ; but, best of all, will cease the encouragement to the militant and bureaucratic spirit that the posses- sion of the colonies fostered. The sentiments as well as the employ- ments appropriate to peace will re- ceive an impulse that ought to en- able Spain to fill an honorable if not a glorious place in the future history of Europe. But this bright outlook is based upon the assumption that she will not join in the mad compe- tition of her neighbors in armaments and thus fall a prey with them to the
��economic and moral ravages of " an armed peace."
��BREAM AND REALITY.
An ingenious article by M. Ca- mille Melinand, which appeared a few months ago in the Revue des Deux Mondes under the title of Le Reve et la Realite (Dream and Real- ity), is reproduced, in its more im- portant points, in translation, in the present number of the Monthly, and will repay perusal for the novel views it presents. The object of the writer is to show that there is not so much difference as is commonly supposed between the waking and sleeping states, that our dreams are not so illusory nor our waking experiences so absolutely real as we are in the habit of assuming, and that, as we wake from dreams, so we may ex- pect to wake from what we call life into a condition of existence that will give us a new standpoint, and reduce all the experiences which we now take so seriously and tragically to the level of a dream. The only substantial differences he recognizes between our waking state and the dream state are (1) that in our wak- ing moments we know that there is another condition which we call dreaming, while in our dreams we do not recognize a separate waking state; and (2) that, while we wake from our dreams, we do not wake from what we call reality.
M. Melinand writes in a candid spirit, and yet we think his article is calculated to encourage a somewhat unhealthy type of mysticism. We do not see how it is possible to take too serious a view of the life we live in the present. Whether we view it tragically or not must depend in large measure upon our individual experiences ; and happy are they into whose lives tragedy does not enter. The very fact that M. Melinand would dissuade us from taking life