PHILIPPINE ISLANDS AND AMERICAN CAPITAL. 187
fear unless we inflict upon ourselves a similar burden. We have succeeded by attending to our own industries, by developing our natural resources, by producing things that the people of other na- tions must have. That development is but begun. Even England, the ruler of the greatest colonial empire the world has ever known, the greatest manufacturing nation, the mistress of the seas, stands with almost stationary exports. The United States, the nation with a small navy, the'nation that never really had a colony, the so-called isolated nation, has come by rapid strides to the point where she is the leading exporter of the world.
There is no reason why the progress of the United States should be checked. England has demonstrated the fact that the nation that has the iron and coal is the commercial mistress of the world. The TJnited States is continuing, and will continue the demonstration. England has but 900 square miles of much-used coal lands, and she gets her iron ore from Spain. We have over 200,000 square miles* of untouched coal lands; an almost continuous bed of iron ore, reaching from Lake Ontario to Alabama, f Beside this great ore bed is the x\ppalachian coal field, with coal mines in every State between N'ew York and Alabama. There are mountains of iron ore in Missouri and Michigan. By the special lines of lake steamers the iron ore of Lake Superior is taken to Chicago and Cleveland, and thence carried by rail to Pittsburg. There the eastern coal com- pletes the conditions for the most economical production of iron and steel. That gives the L^nited States the basis for our export trade in iron, steel, and machinery. We are capturing the iron markets of the world, and, judging by our supplies, can hold them for ages. As our iron and coal are the basis of all manufacturing industry, continued attention to them will give us the control of the world's trade.
There are many other lines of our internal development that are yet barely begim. Irrigation*' is an example of this. The report of John W. Noble, Secretary of the Interior for 1891, said, " One hun- dred and twenty million acres that are now desert may be redeemed by irrigation so as to produce the cereals, fruits, and garden products possible in the climate where the lands are located." That is an area nearly twice as large as the Philippine Islands, and it is open to the American settler, while there is an indication that the Philip- pines may be inaccessible on account of their climate. Moreover,
- The last United States census puts our coal lands at something more than 225,000
+ " This deposit occurs as far north as the southern shores of Lake Ontario, and thence extends in an almost continuous manner through Pennsylvania, Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee to central Alabama." — N. S. Shaler's The United States of America, vol. i, p. 432.