vations have been compiled and studied, and the geophysical problems are as yet only imperfectly formulated; but of the physiographic phenomena, or the disturbances of the earth's surface, so much is known that it has been thought advisable to prepare a preliminary report. This was submitted to the governor on the third of June, and has been issued as a pamphlet of twenty pages. The expenses of the commission are being met by the Carnegie Institution.
Architects and engineers were not less prompt and energetic. To
the men who plan and direct construction in the earthquake district of California it was important to know what materials and what structural forms best withstood the shock, and they immediately began the study of earthquake injuries and of instances of immunity from earthquake effects. In that part of San Francisco where the earthquake injury was most serious the shock was quickly followed by fire, which destroyed much of the evidence, but many important observations were made in the brief interval. The study of structural questions, like the