Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 73.djvu/213

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209
PREHISTORIC ABORIGINES OF MINNESOTA

Siouan stock. Hence again, for the purpose of the present discussion, the Iroquois may be considered with the Siouan family.

Of these four great family stocks it will be the purpose of this paper to deal mainly with the last two mentioned, i. e., the Algonquian and the Siouan.

In the Algonquian family are embraced the following tribes, as stated by J. W. Powell, as well as several other small tribes that dominated the north Atlantic coast; the arrangement here is that of D. G. Brinton in the previsional order of their linguistic affinities, the oldest and perhaps the parent tongue, the Kilistino, heading the list:

Cree (Kilistino)
Old Algonkin
Montagnais
Ojibwa
Ottawa
Pottawotomi
Miami
Illinois
Pea
Piankishaw
Kaskaskia
Menominee
Sac
Fox
Kikapoo
Micmac
Etchemin
Abnaki
Delaware
Shawnee
Mohecan
Nanticoke
Gros Ventres (of the Plains)[1]
Sheyenne
 

To these may be added the Arapahoe, associates of the Sheyenne in Wyoming, not mentioned by Brinton. These show, according to Krœber, certain characteristics that mark them as differing from the other Algonquians, both in speech and in tribal organization. There is no history or tradition of their origin. They have no clans nor totemic divisions, whereas these are marked features of the most of the Algonquian stock. Certain more elemental characteristics of their dialect, and the certainty of their having long preceded the Sheyenne in their present habitats, seem to warrant the assumption that they are more primitive than even the Kilistino.

The area formerly occupied by the Algonquian family was more extensive than that of any other linguistic stock of North America, their territory reaching from Labrador to the Rocky Mountains, and from Churchill River of Hudson Bay as far south at least as Pamlico Sound of North Carolina. (Powell.)

  1. There were two tribes of Gros Ventres, so named by the French, distinguished as Gros Ventres of the Missouri, a tribe of the Siouan tongue, and Gros Ventres of the Plains, who were Algonquian.