years of age. The law has been declared unconstitutional in one state. Public opinion is by no means ready for such treatment, even of the confirmed criminal or very dangerous imbecile. And it is quite out of the question to get sterilization enforced in cases of high-grade de- fectives. These are often attractive, and do not seem to be defective to casual observers. They are, however, most fertile sources of burdens to the state.
3. For delinquent minors, most states have provided reform schools and homes. At these schools, industrial education is emphasized, and this, with able field officers, is depended upon for turning these social misfits into useful law-abiding citizens. A very fine service has been rendered by these institutions. Many successes decorate their annals. It is, however, recog-nized that the institutionalizing of many boys and girls is a positive damage to their characters. Some acquire many anti- social habits and traits therein.
Most important in regard to the organization and work of these in- stitutions is the question of mental deficiency in the delinquent. The high-grade defective has not been commonly recognized, and we now know that many such are and have been in these reform schools, and the officers of such institutions have entertained hopes of eliminating further delinquencies through education. But the education of de- fectives is a very special process, and it is well known that no educa- tion can overcome the defect in the native endowment of the individual.^
If, therefore, the delinquency is directly chargeable to the defect, the optimism and the procedure alike are ill founded. In so far, the state is misdirecting her energies, and wasting her funds. It is wise, therefore, to ascertain in the case of each delinquent, whether or not he is educable, and if so, in what direction and how far. Of course, practical psychology is far from giving us specific answers to these questions. But, we can ascertain whether or not there is definite feeble-mindedness in any given case, and the search for better answers to the above ques- tions is a line of activity wherein research should save the state both money and citizens. The two classes, defective delinquents and de- linquents in which no defect can be found, require different treatment. It is unfair to both to keep them together in one institution.
4. Another and newer agency dealing with juvenile delinquency is the Juvenile Court. The first of these was provided for in Chicago in 1899. There can be no doubt as to the value of this court with its probation system and social workers. They have saved many a child from a life of crime. It is a much saner system than its predecessor for supplying intelligence and authority to the management of children with whom the home is unable to cope. The older plan was that of the
1 For statistics concerning extent of feeble-mindedness among delinquents, see H. H. Goddard, " Feeble-Mindedness, " 1914, p. 9.