Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 91.djvu/322

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306

��Popular Science Monthly

��room. Add 30 gal. additional capacity for extra bathroom. A water back having a heating surface of 100 sq. in. is sufficient for a 40-gal. boiler.

Boilers should be galvanized inside and out, particu- larly inside. Copper boilers are preferable if properly coated inside with block tin. These are class- ed as light,

��VENTILATION

���A drainage system of a residence to carry away the waste from the sinks and bath

heavy and extra heavy, the latter being tested to 150 lb. water pressure. Ordinary steel or iron boilers are tested to 150 lb. water pressure and extra heavy ones to 250 lb. pressure. The latter should be used when the gage pressure is more than 40 lb. per square inch.

Sewer Plumbing

The sewer plumbing serves as a drain for the water plumbing. The drainage system

��should be so constructed as to carry away completely everything emptied into it, and it should be constantly vented, frequently and thoroughly flushed, and have each of its openings into the house securely guarded. All drains, soil pipes, and waste pipe should be water-tight and air-tight.

��NAME OF PIPE

��Main and branch soil pipe

Main waste pipe

Branch waste pipes for kitchen sinks .

Bath or sink waste pipe

Basin waste pipe

Pantry sink waste pipe

Water closet trap

Wash tubs. Traps for two tubs. . . . Waste pipes for three or four tubs . . .

Main vents and long branches

Branch vents for traps over 2 in

Branch vents for traps less than 2 in .

��DIAMETER

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��The soil pipe, or house drainage main, begins at the sewer opening and passes up through the house as nearly vertical as possible and out through the roof for free ventilation. It should be at least 4 in. in diameter, of extra heavy cast iron, and all joints should be tightly calked with lead and oakum. All discharge from the wash basins, sinks, and toilets empties into the soil pipe, and connections should be tightly made. The sewer inside the basement wall should always be soil pipe; tile should never be used except outside of the wall. A soil-pipe trap should be provided at the house foundation as shown. Every fixture should have a trap to prevent foul air from coming back through the waste pipe. Vent pipes should be provided on all waste pipes to prevent siphonage and the con- sequent destroying of the traps. A good arrangement of sewer plumbing is shown in the illustration. Note the traps and vent pipes on each waste pipe. The smallest sizes of waste and vent pipes are given in the table above.

All plumbing should be tested by filling with water or smoke to detect leaks.

AN ANNOUNCEMENT Owing to the fact that the last chapter on Winning an Athlete's Laurels covers all indoor events and does not contain any special features for this season of the year it will be concluded in a later issue, or one of the early winter month's, at which time all outdoor events will be discontinued and the athlete will be interested principally in something to occupy his leisure time indoors.

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