Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/102
a. But a few roots exhibit the reversions of final ç to k before bh and su, and also when final (145): they are diç, dṛç, spṛç, and optionally naç; and viç has in V. always vikṣú, loc. pl., but víṭ, viḍbhís, etc. Examples are díksaṁçita, dṛgbhís, hṛdispṛ́k, nák (or naṭ).
Examples of ç remaining unchanged before vowels etc. are : viçí, viviçyās, aviçran, açnomi, vacmi, uçmási.
b. A ç remains irregularly unchanged before p in the compound viçpáti.
219. Final ज् j is in one set of words treated like च् c, and in another set like श् ç.
Thus, from yuj: áyukthās, áyukta, yun̄kté, yukti, yóktra, yokṣyā́mi, yukṣú; yun̄gdhí, áyugdhvam, yugbhís.
Again, from mṛj etc.: ámṛkṣat, srakṣyā́mi; mā́rṣṭhi, mṛṣṭá, sṛ́ṣṭi, rāṣṭrá; mṛḍḍhí, mṛḍḍhavám, rāḍbhís, rāṭsú, rā́ṭ.
a. To the former or yuj-class belong (as shown by thier quotable forms) about twenty roots and radical stems: namely, bhaj, saj, tyaj (not V.), raj 'color, svaj, majj, nij, tij, vij, 1 and 2 bhuj, yuj, ruj, vṛj, añj, bhañj, çiñj; ū́rj, sráj, bhiṣáj, ásṛj;—also, stems formed with the suffixes aj and ij (383. IV), as tṛṣṇáj, vaṇíj; and ṛtvíj, though containing the root yaj.
b. To the latter or mṛj-class belong only about one third as many: namely, yaj, bhrajj, vraj, rāj, bhrāj, mṛj, sṛj.
c. A considerable number of j-roots are not placed in circumstances to exhibit the distinction; but such roots are in part assignable to one or the class on the evidence of the related languages. The distinction appears, namely, only when the j occurs as final, or is followed, either in inflection or derivation, by a dental mute (t, th, dh), or, in noun-inflection, by bh or su. In derivation (above, 216) we find a g sometimes from the mṛj-class: thus mārga, sárga, etc.; and (2161) before Vedic mid. endings, sasṛgmahe, asṛgran, etc. (beside sasṛjrire)—while from the yuj-class occur only yuyujre, ayujran, bubhujrire, with j. And MS. has viçvasṛ́k from (√sṛj).
220. Final ch falls under the rules of combination almost only in the root prach, in which it is treated as if it were ç (praç being, indeed, its more original form): thus, prakṣyā́mi, pṛṣṭá, and also the derivative praçná. As final and in noun-inflection (before bh and su), it is changed to the lingual mute: thus, prāḍvivāka.
a. Mūrtá is called the participle of mūrch, and a gerund mūrtvā́ is given to the same root. They (with mū́rti) must doubtless come from a simpler form of the root.
b. Of jh there is no occurrence: the grammarians require it to be treated like c.