an adjective. From such cases as the following—paçyato bakamūrkhasya nakulāir bhakṣitāḥ sutāḥ (H.) of the foolish heron, while he looked on, the young were eaten by the ichneumons, or gato ‘rdharātraḥ kathāḥ kathayato mama (KSS.) half my night was passed in telling stories, or kartavyasya karmaṇaḥ kṣipram akriyamāṇasya kālaḥ pibati tadrasam (H.) of a work needing to be done but left undone time quickly drinks up its essence—come into currency, by increasing independence of the genitive, such other cases as: divaṁ jagāma munīnām paçyatāṁ tadā (R.) he went then to heaven, the ascetics looking on; evaṁ lālapatas tasya devadūtas tadā ’bhyetya vākyam āha (MBh.) as he thus lamented, a divine messenger coming addressed him; iti vādina evā ’sya dhenur āvavṛte vanāt (Ragh.) while he thus spoke, the cow came from the forest. The genitive always indicates a living actor, and the participle is usually one of seeing or hearing or uttering, especially the former. The construction is said by the Hindu grammarians to convey an implication of disregard or despite; and such is often to be recognized in it, though not prevailingly.
301. Uses of the Locative. a. The locative is properly the in-case, the case expressing situation or location; but its sphere of use has been somewhat extended, so as to touch and overlap the boundaries of other cases, for which it seems to be a substitute.
b. Unimportant variations of the sense of in are those of amid or among, on, and at. Of course, also, situation in time as well as place is indicated by the case; and it is applied to yet less physical relations, to sphere of action and feeling and knowledge, to state of things, to accompanying circumstance; and out of this last grows the frequent use of the locative as the case absolute.
c. Moreover, by a pregnant construction, the locative is used to denote the place of rest or cessation of action or motion (into or on to instead of in or on; German in with accusative instead of dative: compare English there for thither).
302. a. The locative of situation in space hardly needs illustration. An example or two are: yé devā́ diví sthá (AV.) which of you gods are in heaven; na deveṣu na yakṣeṣu tādṛk (MBh.) not among gods or Yakshas is such a one; párvatasya pṛṣṭhé (RV.) on the ridge of the mountain; vidáthe santu devā́ḥ (RV.) may the gods be at the assembly; daçame pade (MBh.) at the tenth step.
b. The locative of time indicates the point of time at which anything takes place: thus, asyā́ uṣáso vyùṣṭāu (RV.) at the shining forth of this dawn; etasminn eva kāle (MBh.) at just that time; dvādaçe varṣe (MBh.) in the twelfth year. That the accusative is occasionally used in this sense, instead of the locative, was pointed out above (276 c).
c. The person with whom, instead of the place at which, one is or remains is put in the locative: thus, tíṣṭhanty asmin paçávaḥ (MS.) animals abide with him; gurāu vasan (M.) living at a teacher's; and, pregnantly, tāvat tvayi bhaviṣyāmi (MBh.) so long will I cleave to thee.