Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/183

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Plural:
N. A. V. मनांसि
mánāṅsi
अङ्गिरसस्
án̄girasas
हवींषि
havī́ṅṣi
I. मनोभिस्
mánobhis
अङ्गिरोभिस्
án̄girobhis
हविर्भिस्
havírbhis
D. Ab. मनोभ्यस्
mánobhyas
अङ्गिरोभ्यस्
án̄girobhyas
हविर्भ्यस्
havírbhyas
G. मनसाम्
mánasām
अङ्गिरसाम्
án̄girasām
हविषाम्
havíṣām
L. मनःसु
mánaḥsu
अङ्गिरःसु
án̄giraḥsu
हवीःषु
havī́ḥṣu

In like manner, चक्षुस् cákṣus n. eye forms चक्षुषा cákṣuṣā, चक्षुर्म्याम् cákṣurbhyām, चक्षूंषि cakṣūṅṣui, and so on.

415. Vedic etc. Irregularities, a. In the older language, the endings -asam (acc. sing.) and -asas (generally nom.-acc. pl.; once or twice gen.-abl. sing.) of stems in as are not infrequently contracted to -ām, -ās — e. g. āçā́m, vedhā́m; surā́dhās, ánāgās — and out of such forms grow, both earlier and later, substitute-stems in ā, as āçā́, jarā́, medhā́. So from other forms grow stems in a and in asa, which exchange more or less with those in as through the whole history of the language.

b. More scattering irregularities may be mentioned, as follows: 1. The usual masc. and fem. du. ending in ā instead of āu; — 2. uṣás f. dawn often prolongs its a in the other strong cases, as in the nom. sing.: thus, uṣā́sam, uṣā́sā, uṣā́sas (and once in a weak case, uṣā́sas); and in its instr. pl. occurs once (RV.) uṣádbhis instead of uṣóbhis; — 3. from toçás is once (RV.) found a similar dual, toçā́sā; — 4. from svávas and svátavas occur in RV. a nom. sing. masc. in vān, as if from a stem in vant; and in the Brāhmaṇas is found the dat.-abl. pl. of like formation svátavadbhyas.

c. The stems in is and us also show transitions to stems in i and u, and in iṣa and uṣa. From janús is once (RV.) made the nom. sing, janū́s, after the manner of an as-stem (cf. also janūrvā́sas ÇB.).

416. The grammarians regard uçánas m. as regular stem-form of the proper name noticed above (355 a), but give it the irregular nom. uçánā and the voc. uçanas or uçana or uçanan. Forms from the as-stem, even nom., are sometimes met with in the later literature.

a. As to forms from as-stems to áhan or áhar and ū́dhan or ū́dhar, see below, 430.