Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/189

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from pánthanpánthās, pánthānam; pánthānāu; pánthānas;

from pathípathíbhyām; pathíbhis, pathíbhyas, pathíṣu;

from pathpathā́, pathé, pathás, pathí; pathós; pathás or páthas (accus.), pathā́m.

a. In the oldest language (RV.), however, the strong stem is only pánthā: thus, pánthās, nom. sing.; pánthām, acc. sing.; pánthās, nom. pl.; and even in AV., pánthānam and pánthānas are rare compared with the others. From pathí occur also the nom. pl. patháyas and gen. pl. pathīnā́m. RV. has once pāthás, acc. pl., with long ā.

434. The stems mánthan m. stirring-stick, and ṛbhukṣán m., an epithet of Indra, are given by the grammarians the same inflection with pánthan; but only a few cases have been found in use. In V. occur from the former the acc. sing. mánthām, and gen. pl. mathīnā́m (like the corresponding cases from pánthan); from the latter, the nom. sing. ṛbhukṣā́s and voc. pl. ṛbhukṣās, like the corresponding Vedic forms of pánthan; but also the acc. sing. ṛbhukṣáṇam and nom. pl. ṛbhukṣáṇas, which are after quite another model.

Adjectives

435. Original adjective stems in an are almost exclusively those made with the suffix van, as yájvan sacrificing, sútvan pressing the soma, jítvan conquering. The stem is masc and neut. only (but sporadic cases of its use as fem. occur in RV.); the corresponding fem. stem is made in varī: thus, yájvarī, jítvarī.

436. Adjective compounds having a noun in an as final member are inflected after the model of noun-stems; and the masculine forms are sometimes used also as feminine; but usually a special feminine is made by adding ī to the weakest form of the masculine stem: thus, sómarājñī, kīlā́lodhnī, ékamūrdhnī, durṇā́mnī.

437. But (as was pointed out above: 429 a) nouns in an occurring as final members of compounds often substitute a stem in a for that in an: thus, -rāja, -janma, -adhva, -aha; their feminine is in ā. Occasional exchanges of stems in van and in vant also occur: thus, vivásvan and vivásvant.

a. The remaining divisions of the consonantal declension are made up of adjective stems only.

D. Derivative stems (adjective) in in.

438. The stems of this division are those formed with the suffixes इन् in, मिन् min, विन् vin. They are mas-