470. Of peculiarities and irregularities of formation, the following may be noticed:
a. The suffix īyas has in a few instances the briefer form yas, generally as alternative with the other: thus, távīyas and távyas, návīyas and návyas, vásīyas and vásyas, pánīyas and pányas; and so from rabh and sah; sányas occurs alone. From bhū come bhū́yas and bhū́yiṣṭha, beside which RV. has also bhávīyas.
b. Of roots in ā, the final blends with the initial of the suffix to e: thus, sthéyas, dhéṣṭha, yéṣṭha; but such forms are in the Veda generally to be resolved, as dháïṣṭha, yáïṣṭha. The root jyā forms jyéṣṭha, but jyā́yas (like bhū́yas).
c. The two roots in ī, prī and çrī, form préyas and préṣṭha and çréyas and çréṣṭha.
d. From the root of ṛjú come, without strengthening, ṛ́jīyas and ṛ́jiṣṭha; but in the older language also, more regularly, rájīyas and rájiṣṭha.
471. The suffixes of secondary derivation are तर tara and तम tama. They are of almost unrestricted application, being added to adjectives of every form, simple and compound, ending in vowels or in consonants — and this from the earliest period of the language until the latest. The accent of the primitive remains (with rare exceptions) unchanged; and that form of stem is generally taken which appears before an initial consonant of a case-ending (weak or middle form).
a. Examples (of older as well as later occurrence) are: from vowel-stems, priyátara, váhnitama, rathī́tara and rathī́tama (RV.), cā́rutara, potṛ́tama, saṁraktatara; — from consonant-stems, çáṁtama, çáçvattama, mṛḍayáttama, tavástara and tavástama, tuvíṣṭama, vápuṣṭara, tapasvítara, yaçasvítama, bhágavattara, hiraṇyavāçīmattama; — from compounds, ratnadhā́tama, abhibhū́tara, sukṛ́ttara, pūrbhíttama, bhūyiṣṭabhā́ktama, bhūridā́vattara, çúcivratatama, strīkāmatama.
b. But in the Veda the final n of a stem is regularly retained; thus, madíntara and madíntama, vṛṣántama; and a few stems even add a nasal: thus, surabhíntara, rayíntama, madhúntama. In a case or two, the strong stem of a present participle is taken: thus, vrā́dhanttama, sáhanttama; and, of a perfect participle, the weakest stem: thus, vidúṣṭara, mīḍhúṣṭama. A feminine final ī is shortened: thus, devitamā (RV.), tejasvinitamā (K.).