Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/219

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search
This page has been validated.

a. The one, tya, is tolerably common (although only a third of its possible forms occur) in RV., but rare in AV., and almost unknown later, its nom. sing., in the three genders, is syás, syā́, tyát, and it makes the accusatives tyám, tyā́m, tyát, and goes on through the remaining cases in the same manner as ta. It has in RV. the instr. fem. tyā́ (for tyáyā). Instead of syā as nom. sing. fem. is also found tyā.

b. The other is the usual demonstrative of nearer position, this here, and is in frequent use through all periods of the language. It prefixes e to the simple root, forming the nominatives eṣás, eṣā́, etát — and so on through the whole inflection.

c. The stem tya has neither compounds nor derivatives. But from eta are formed both, in the same manner as from the simple ta, only much less numerous: thus, etaddā́ (ÇB.), etadartha, etc., from the so-called stem etat; and etādṛ́ç and etā́vant from eta. And eṣa, like sa (498), is used to qualify pronouns of the 1st and 2d persons: e. g. eṣā ’ham, ete vayam.

500. There is a defective pronominal stem, ena, which is accentless, and hence used only in situations where no emphasis falls upon it. It does not occur elsewhere than in the accusative of all numbers, the instr. sing., and the gen.-loc. dual: thus,

m. n. f.
Sing. A. enam enat enām
I. enena enayā
Du. A. enāu ene ene
G. L. enayos enayos
Pl. A. enān enāni enās

a. The RV. has enos instead of enayos, and in one or two instances accents a form: thus, enā́m, enā́s (?). AB. uses enat also as nom. neut.

b. As ena is always used substantively, it has more nearly than ta the value of a third personal pronoun, unemphatic. Apparent examples of its adjectival use here and there met with are doubtless the result of confusion with eta (499 b).

c. This stem forms neither derivatives nor compounds.

501. The declension of two other demonstratives is so irregularly made up that they have to be given in full. The one, अयम् ayám etc., is used as a more indefinite demonstrative, this or that; the other, असौ asāú etc., signifies especially the remoter relation, yon or yonder.

a. They are as follows: