Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/226

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e. Corresponding to svayám (513) is the possessive svá, meaning own, as relating to all persons and numbers. The RV. has once the corresponding simple possessive of the second person, tvá thy.

f. For the use of sva as reflexive pronoun, see above, 513 b.

g. All these words form their feminines in ā.

h. Other derivatives of a like value have no claim to be mentioned here. But (excepting sva) the possessives are so rarely used as to make but a small figure in the language, which prefers generally to indicate the possessive relation by the genitive case of the pronoun itself.

517. By the suffix vant are formed from the pronominal roots, with prolongation of their final vowels, the adjectives mā́vant, tvā́vant, yuṣmā́vant, yuvā́vant, tā́vant, etā́vant, yā́vant, meaning of my sort, like me, etc. Of these, however, only the last three are in use in the later language, in the sense of tantus and quantus. They are inflected like other adjective stems in vant, making their feminines in vatī (452 ff.).

a. Words of similar meaning from the roots i and ki are íyant and kíyant, inflected in the same manner: see above, 451.

518. The pronominal roots show a like prolongation of vowel in combination with the root dṛç see, look, and its derivatives -dṛça and (quite rarely) dṛkṣa: thus, mādṛç, -dṛça; tvādṛç, -dṛça; yuṣmādṛç, -dṛça; tādṛç, -dfta, -dṛkṣa; etādṛç, -dṛça, -dṛkṣa; yādṛç, -dṛça; īdṛ́ç, -dṛ́ça, -dṛ́kṣa; kīdṛ́ç, -dṛça, -dṛkṣa. They mean of my sort, like or resembling me, and the like, and tādṛç and the following are not uncommon, with the sense of talis and qualis. The forms in dṛç are unvaried for gender; those in dṛça (and dṛkṣa?) have feminines in ī.

519. From ta, ka, ya come táti so many, káti how many? yáti as many. They have a quasi-numeral character, and are inflected (like the numerals páñca etc.: above, 483) only in the plural, and with the bare stem as nom. and accus.: thus, N.A. táti; I. etc. tátibhis, tátibhyas, tátīnām, tátiṣu.

520. From ya (in V. and B.) and ka come the comparatives and superlatives yatará and yatamá, and katará and katamá; and from i, the comparative ítara. For their inflection, see below, 523.

521. Derivatives with the suffix ka, sometimes conveying a diminutive or a contemptuous meaning, are made from certain of the pronominal roots and stems (and may, according to the grammarians, be made from them all): thus, from ta, takám, takát, takā́s; from sa, sakā́; from ya, yakás, yakā́, yaké; from asāú, asakāú; from amu, amuka.

a. For the numerous and frequently used adverbs formed from pronominal roots, see Adverbs (below, 1097 ff.).