Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/299
dyá, çyá, syá, are more properly (as having an accented á in the stem) to be reckoned to this class than to the ya-class, where the native classification puts them (see 761 g). They appear to be analogous with the stems kṣya, sva, hva, noted below (755).
754. The roots from which á-stems are made have certain noticeable peculiarities of form. Hardly any of them have long vowels, and none have long interior vowels; very few have final vowels; and none (save two or three transfers, and √lajj be ashamed, which does not occur in any accentuated text, and is perhaps to be referred rather to the a-class) have a as radical vowel, except as this forms a combination with r, which is then reduced with it to ṛ or some of the usual substitutes of ṛ.
755. The roots in i and u and ū change those vowels into iy and uv before the class-sign: thus, kṣiyá, yuvá, ruvá; suvá, etc.; and sva, hva occur, instead of suva and huva, in the older language, while TS. has the participle kṣyánt. K. has dhūva from √dhū.
756. The three roots in ṛ form the present-stems kirá, girá (also gila), tirá, and are sometimes written as kir etc.; and gur, jur, tur are really only varieties of gṛ, jṛ, tṛ; and bhur and sphur are evidently related with other ar or ṛ root-forms.
a. The common root prach ask makes the stem pṛcchá.
757. As to the stems -driyá and -priyá, and mriyá and dhriyá, sometimes reckoned as belonging to this class, see below, 773.
758. Although the present-stem of this class shows in general a weak form of the root, there are nevertheless a number of roots belonging to it which are strengthened by a penultimate nasal. Thus, the stem muñcá is made from √muc release; siñcá from √sic sprinkle; vindá from √vid find; kṛntá from √kṛt cut; piṅçá from √piç adorn; tṛmpá from √tṛp enjoy; lumpá from √lup break; limpá from √lip smear; and occasional forms of the same kind are met with from a few others, as tunda from √tud thrust; bṛṅhá from √bṛh strengthen; dṛṅhá (beside dṛ́ṅha) from √dṛh make firm; çumbhá (beside çúmbha) from √çubh shine; TS. has çṛnthati from √çrath (instead of çrathnāti; uñcha, vindhá, sumbha, are of doubtful character.
a. Nasalized á-stems are also in several instances made by transfer from the nasal class: thus, unda, umbha, ṛñjá, piṅṣá, yuñja, rundha, çiṅṣa.
759. The present-stem of this class adds य ya to the accented but unstrengthened root. Its inflection is also pre-