in a short vowel takes त्य tya instead of य ya: thus, जित्य -jítya, स्तुत्य -stútya, कृत्य -kṛ́tya.
a. Roots in variable ṛ (242) change that vowel to īr or ūr: thus, kīrya, gī́rya, tīrya (and tū́rya), dī́rya, pūrya, çī́rya, stī́rya (also stṛtya); — roots in ā have for the most part -āya; but dhā suck makes dhīya, and double forms are found from gā sing (gāya, gī́ya), pā drink (pā́ya, pīya), dā give (dā́ya, dádya), dā divide (dā́ya, ditya), mā measure, exchange (mā́ya, mítya), sā bind (sā́ya, sya); lī cling has lā́ya or līya, as if an ā-verb; and khan and dham make khāya and dhmā́ya, from their ā-forms; — the roots in an and am making their participle in ata (954 d) make the gerund in atya, but also later in anya, amya (e. g. gátya, gamya; hátya, hanya; but tan makes as second form tāya, and from ram only ramya is quotable); — the roots in īv add ya to their īv-form: thus, ṣṭhīvya, sī́vya; — a few roots in i and u add ya to the lengthened vowel besides adding tya: thus, i go (īya, ítya; also ayya), ci gather (cīya, cítya), and plu, yu unite, su, stu (plū́ya, plutya, etc.); while kṣi destroy has only kṣī́ya.
b. This gerund, though accented on the root-syllable, is generally a weakening formation: thus are made, without a strengthening nasal found in some other forms, ácya, ájya, idhya, údya, ubhya, grathya, tácya, daçya, bádhya, bhajya, lípya, lúpya, vlágya, çrabhya, sajya, skábhya, stábhya, syadya, svajya; with weakening of other kinds, gṛ́hya and gṛ́bhya, pṛcchya, úcya, udya, úpya, úṣya (vas dwell), úhya, vidhya, vī́ya, vṛçcya, spṛ́dhya, hū́ya; — but from a number of roots are made both a stronger and a weaker form: thus, manthya and máthya, mārjya and mṛ́jya, rundhya and rúdhya, çaṅsya and çásya, çāsya and çiṣya, skándya and skádya, sráṅsya and srasya; — and only strong forms are found from roots arc, av, cāy, çī (çayya), as well as from certain roots with a constant nasal: e. g. uñch, kamp, nand, lamb, çan̄k; isolated cases are oṣya (√uṣ burn), prothya (also prúthya).
c. Other special cases are úhya and ūhya (√ūh remove), gurya and gū́rya, gúhya and gūhya, rúhya and rūhya, bhramya and bhrāmya, áyya (beside ítya, īya), ghrāya and jighrya; and ūrṇutya (beside vṛ́tya).
993. The older language has the same two gerund formations, haying the same distinction, and used in the same way.
a. In RV., however, the final of ya is in the great majority of instances (fully two thirds) long (as if the instrumental ending of a derivative noun in i or ti). In AV., long ā appears only once in a RV. passage.
b. Instead of tvā alone, the Veda has three forms of the suffix, namely tvā́, tvā́ya, and tvī́. Of these three, tvī́ is decidedly the commonest in RV. (thirty-five occurrences, against twenty-one of tvā); but it is un-