hand, in the oldest language (RV.), middle forms of other present-systems are in a considerable number of cases employed with passive meaning.
e. According to the grammarians, there may be formed from some verbs, for passive use, a special stem for the aorist and the two future systems, coinciding in form with the peculiar 3d sing. aorist.
f. Thus, from √dā (aor. 3d sing. adāyi), beside ádāsi, dāsyé, dātā́he, also ádāyiṣi, dāyiṣyé, dāyitā́he. The permission to make this doable formation extends to all roots ending in vowels, and to grah, dṛç, and han. No such passive forms occur in the older language, and not half-a-dozen are quotable from the later (we find adhāyiṣi and asthāyiṣi in DKC., and anāyiṣata in Kuval.).
g. As to the alleged passive inflection of the periphrastic perfect, see below, 1072.
h. Besides the participle from the present tense-stem (771. 5), the passive has a past participle in त ta (952), or न na (957), and future participles, or gerundives, of various formation (961 ff.), made directly from the root.
999. As already pointed out (282 a), the language, especially later, has a decided predilection for the passive form of the sentence. This is given in part by the use of finite passive forms, but oftener by that of the passive participle and of the gerundive: the participle being taken in part in a present sense, but more usually in a past (whether indefinite or proximate past), and sometimes with a copula expressed, but much oftener without it; and the gerundive representing either a pure future or one with the sense of necessity or duty added. A further example is: tatrāi ’ko yuvā brāhmaṇo dṛṣṭaḥ: taṁ dṛṣṭvā kāmena pīḍitā saṁjātā: sakhyā agre kathitam: sakhi puruṣo ‘yaṁ gṛhītvā mama mātuḥ samīpam ānetavyaḥ (Vet.) there she saw a young Brahman; at sight of him she felt the pangs of love; she said to her friend: 'friend, you must take and bring this man to my mother'. In some styles of later Sanskrit, the prevailing expression of past time is by means of the passive participle (thus, in Vet., an extreme case, more than nine tenths).
a. As in other languages, a 3d sing, passive is freely made from intransitive as well as transitive verbs: thus, ihā ”gamyatām come hither; tvayā tatrāi ’va sthīyatām do you stand just there; sarvāir jālam ādāyo ’ḍḍīyatām (H.) let all fly up with the net.
1000. The intensive (sometimes also called frequentative) is that one of the secondary conjugations which is least removed from the analogy of formations already de-