the other intensives above. They are, for the present-system, the same with those acknowledged as regular later. The older perfect is like the other intensive perfects found in RV.: namely, jāgara etc., with the participle jāgṛvā́ṅs; and a future jāgariṣyá-, a passive participle jāgaritá, and a gerundive jāgaritavyà, are met with in the Brāhmaṇas. The old aorist (RV.) is the usual reduplicated or so-called causative aorist: thus, ájīgar. The grammarians give it in the later language a perfect with additional reduplication, jajāgāra etc., an iṣ-aorist, ajāgariṣam, with precative jāgaryāsam, and everything else that is needed to make up a complete conjugation. The perf. jajāgāra is quotable from the epics and later, as also the periphrastic jāgarām āsa. And MBh. has the mutilated jāgṛmi, and also a-forms, as jāgarati and jāgramāṇa.
1021. a. The stem irajya (active only) regulate, from which a number of forms are made in RV., has been viewed as an intensive from √raj or ṛj. It lacks, however, any analogy with the intensive formation. The same is true of iradh propitiate (only iradhanta and irádhyāi, apparently for iradhadhyāi).
b. The middle stem ī́ya, not infrequent in the oldest language, is often called an intensive of √i go, but without any propriety, as it has no analogy of form whatever with an intensive. The isolated 1st pl. īmahe, common in RV., is of questionable character.
1022. The root lī totter, with constant intensive reduplication, lelī, is quite irregular in inflection and accent: thus, pres., lelā́yati and lelāyate, pples lelāyántī and leláyatas (gen. sing.) and lelāyamāna, impf. alelāyat and alelet and alelīyata, perf. lelāya and leláya (?).
1023. The RV. anomalous form dart (or dard), 2d and 3d sing. from √dṛ or dar, is doubtfully referred to the intensive, as if abbreviated from dardar. RV. has once avarīvus (or -vur) where the sense requires a form from √vṛt, as avarīvṛtus. The form rarāṇátā (RV., once) seems corrupt.
1024. A marked intensive or frequentative meaning is not always easily to be traced in the forms classed as intensive; and in some of them it is quite effaced. Thus, the roots cit, nij, viṣ use their intensive present-system as if it were an ordinary conjugation-class; nor is it otherwise with gṛ (jāgṛ). The grammarians reckon the inflection of nij and viṣ as belonging to the reduplicating present-system, with irregularly strengthened reduplication; and they treat in the same way vic and vij; jāgṛ, as we have seen, they account a simple root.
a. Also daridrā, intensive of √drā run, is made by the grammarians a simple root, and furnished with a complete set of conjugational forms: as dadaridrāu; adaridrāsīt, etc. etc. It does not occur in the older language (unless dáridrat TS., for which VS. MS. read dáridra). The so-called root vevī flutter is a pure intensive.